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History A-level Germany Key terms
Terms in this set (97)
Revolution from Above
The name given to the new government that the kaiser and the military high command introduced in Germany in 1917, to stop a revolution of the people from below. It was led by Max von Baden
Compensation paid by a defeated country for the damage it caused when at war with other countries.
Fixed at £6.6 billion for Germany.
An agreed truce, or pause in a war to give time for negotiation of peace.
A communist group led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg that wanted a workers' revolution in Germany.
A small group representing workers in place of political parties, usually campaigning for reform.
The Russian for 'council' or 'committee'. Russian soviets became part of the revolutionary government.
To give up power and responsibility. In this case, the kaiser giving up his throne.
'Free Corps' Was a private army made of ex-soldiers, unemployed youths and other discontents led by ex-officers and other military personnel. Formed in December 1918 in the wake of Germany's deafeat in WWI.
The Article in the Weimar Constitution that allowed the president to suspend the Reichstag in an emergency and rule by decree.
This term was first applied to those who had negotiated the armistice and the Treaty of Versailles, used against the Weimar government as a whole by opponents.
'Stormtroopers', the Nazis' Private army. Members were called 'Brownshirts' due to uniform. They protected Nazi political meetings and attacked meetings of other parties. When Hitler first became chancellor, they were a useful addition to the police.
German term for "leader," used by Hitler. Hitler chose this this as his title to show his supreme command over the people and government. The Nazi's used, Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Fuhrer (One People, One Empire, One Leader).
An attempt to overthrow the government by force.
A vote on a single issue, by all who can vote in elections.
(Protective Squad), began in 1925 as Hitler's personal body guard. They were black shirted and took over the deep policing of the state, committed to national socialist ideology, carried out many of the atrocities of WWII, they became tremendously powerful.
The Nazi secret police, were allowed to arrest and imprison people without trial.
'People's community', the German nation as a united body working together for the good of the nation. Were expected to obey the Nazi government and make sacrifices for the nation.
'Leadership Principle', The idea that Hitler was completely in charge, the leader, even in the different levels of government.
Prison camp used to imprison political opponents of the Nazis. The first three were Dachau, Buchenwald and Sacherhausen. Also took undesirable prisoners, many had labour camps attached.
The Nazi Home Guard, formed in October 1944 as a last-ditch attempt against invasion. Boys and old men were seen as physically unfit for the army and even women and girls were recruited.
'Living space', land taken from other countries to provide Germany with the farmland and natural resources that the Germans needed.
To be forced to conform to German culture, in Nazi terms, meant moving non-German people out of an area and moving people with pure German blood into it.
When two hostile sides try to defeat each other by using political propaganda, economic restrictions and agreements, and the military without direct conflict. This developed between the USSR and the USA after WWII.
The economic aid plan for European countries set up in 1947. It provided supplies and money to help post-war recovery, it provided aid to prevent the USSR from gaining influence.
Free market economy
An economy where the government does not interfere in the politics of businesses to control the economy, including prices and wages.
Establishing friendly relations with East Germany, rather than treating it as the Soviet zone, as happened under the Hallstein Doctrine.
A term for an organisation that was right-wing and believed in the power of the state over all its peoples.
The name for various Nazi youth groups for boys and girls aged 6 to 18 years.
A term applied by the Nazis to various races and types of people, e.g. Jews, homosexuals, disabled and gypsies which were not pure Germans, so had to be removed from the Third Reich.
When the federal government removed the state government as a threat to the republic. it then out in place a military government headed by a civilian governor appointed by the government, to restore order. This is how the government dealt with the establishment of communist governments in Saxony and Thuringia in 1922. Troops marched in and broke up the meetings in each land. There were arrests and imprisonment and the army was particularly heavy-handed with workers - there were riots in which workers were shot.
An area of a town or city, fenced/walled off from the city where all the members of a particular group live.
This is the name given to Nazis' attempt to wipe out the Jewish race. Other groups that the Nazis saw as 'inferior' were also caught up in the Holocaust.
When prices rise and the purchasing power of money goes down. Affects savers and workers as wages and interest rates of savings seldom keep pace with inflation once it has started to spiral upwards.
European Monetary System
An arrangement between the EEC members that linked their currencies stabilising the exchange rate between them, so making trade fairer to all.
European Economic Community (EEC)
An organisation of European countries set up in 1957 to promote free trade and economic co-operation. Original members were West Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands.
Illegal trade avoiding government taxes and price regulation. Black market often carried on as barter and often favours well-off people to exchange valuables for scarce goods.
The Dawes Plan (1924) / The Young Plan (1929)
Agreements made between Germany and Allies that reduced the amount to be paid in reparations and extended the time to repay it. THe plans also included loans to help Germany's economic recovery.
A group of businesses in the same sector that make agreements to control prices. Provided some stability because it stopped prices moving as much. Meant cartels could fix higher prices than if they operated as separate.
Interacting as little as possible with other countries, politically and economically.
Tax on goods that makes them more expensive and so encourages people to buy goods make in their own country.
League of Nations
An international organisation set up by the Allies after WWI to work for international cooperation and peace. Everyone who signed the peace treaties had to join the League, but Germany was excluded and wasn't asked to join until 1926.
Keeping prices low by reducing government spending.
Devaluing a currency
Reducing the value of currency against another currency, usually the US dollar. Makes goods from the devaluing country more attractive to other countries because they cost less.
Economic self-sufficiency without the need to rely on imports in any area of life, from food to petrol to electricity.
Social market economy
Free market economy with elements of social support for the poorest in a socially responisble economy.
Property or other valuable possession.
The right of worker to take part in the management of the business they work for.
Between 1946 and 1964, there was a sharp rise in births in many countries. In Germany, there was a rise from 69.4 to 86,8 live births per woman.
Kinder, Kuche, Kirche
Means 'Children, Kitchen, Church'. It was a phrase before WWI to sum up the role of women as homemakers and support for the family.
The belief that controlling reproduction can produce a healthier population. THe Society for Population Policy, set up in 1916, fed the growing interest in issues of hereditary and genetics in its magazine, The Coming Generation.
To Hitler and the Nazis, Aryans were the pure people of Nazi Germany, blonde-haired, blue-eyed northern Europeans.
Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM)
The League of German Girls, the older female Nazi youth group.
The German Penal Code, established in 1871, made it a crime for women to seek an abortion, or for doctor to do one, unless there were strong medical reasons to do so.
A faith-based school, in Germany, they were manily Catholic, Protestant and Jewish.
Comon or simultaneous school
A school that took children of varioous faiths and gave them separate religious education.
A school with no religious education.
Meant 'architecture house', design school set up by Walter Gropius in 1919, It saw beauty in technology, simple unfussy design and careeful craftmanship. The name spread to a way of thinking and designing, not just the school.
The new Objectivity grew out of the 'modern' and 'expressionist' movements that had developed just before WWI. Meant a matter-of-fact representation of life, e.g. poverty.
All artists and those who dealt with art, such as publishers and art dealers had to be registered with the Reich Chamber of Culture, which had a separate department for music, literature, motion pictures and broadcasting. The Chamber could refuse to register degenerative art and it laid down strict guidelines for what could be produced.
The policy of 'co-ordination' involved making sure that every aspect of life was controlled to meet that aims of Nazi policy, from maternity care to torchlight parades, from theatre performances to radio broadcasts.
The Roma or Sinti travelling people who had their own language and traditions and who travelled across Eastern Europe.
The 'Night of Broken Glass' on 9th November 1938 when the Nazis organised concerted attacks on Jews across Germany. Over 260 synagogues were burnt Jewish-owned homes and shops attacked and looted. Over 20,000 Jews were arrested and taken to concentration camps, some were released weeks later. Jews were taxed a billion Reichsmarks for repairs that were never carried out.
The idea that all German-speaking people should be united and live in one country.
The policy by which the newly created states in Eastern Europe were supposed to peacefully agree their borders and government.
The linked ideas and beliefs that drive the behaviour of a person or government. Dictatorship, for example, have a single strong leader, an obedient people, tight police control, a large army and expansionist policy.
The policy of attempting to keep the peace by giving in to someone's demands.
A pact against Comintern, an international communist organisation set up by the USSR to spread communist ideas worldwide. Germany and Japan concluded the pact in 1936, the Italy concluded it in 1937.
Cooperation between countries that agree to settle their disputes without resorting to war and to help each other if attacked.
German Labour Front (DAF)
An organisation set up by the Nazis to replace trade unions.
Deliberate ending of life, usually justifies as a result of suffering.
Geneva Disarmament Conference
A conference held in the Swiss city of Geneva between 1930 and 1937 to discuss ways to reduce the military ability of nations to attack each other.
The severe economic downturn in the early mid-1930s resulting in mass unemployment.
Uprising against communist rule and Russian domination in Hungary in 1956.
Inter-Allied Reparations Commission
Formed in 1919 by Britain, France, Italy and Belgium to discuss the reparations Germany should pay.
Military alliance of the USA and Western European countries.
Rebellion of the armed forces.
Night of Long Knives
A series of arrests and murders carried out by the SS and the German army which removed critics of the leadership of the SA and factions within the Nazi party.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Formed in 1948 to agree how to spend Marshall Aid, but to encourage economic co-operation.
A person with supreme power over a specific area.
Proportional Representation (PR)
Where the number of seats in parliament are allocated according to the number of votes.
Red Army Faction (RAF)
The terrorist group also referred to as the Baader-Meinhof group.
Paramilitary wing of the KPD
Radical or socialist groups committed to defending workers' power.
Act of 1951 reinstating many public officials of the Nazi period.
Countries that are formally independent but under heavy influence from another state.
'Steel Helmets', A paramilitary nationalist organisation formed after WWI, made up of returning soldiers.
Issued by Harry S. Truman that would provide political, military and economic aid assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external influences, primarily the threat of communism.
United Nations (UN)
International peacekeeping organisation founded in 1945, successor to the league of nations.
Vengeance weapons, they were missiles used by Nazi Germany in the last stages of the war.
Wall Street Crash
The collapse in share prices of the Wall Street Stock exchange in 1929. Triggered a subsequent bank collapse and worldwide Great Depression.
The military alliance of the USSR and other Communist countries in Europe.
Actions deemed criminal even in the light of war, such as massacre of civilians.
Welfare services such as healthcare, unemployment benefits, pensions and schools provided by government.
West German Chamber of Commerce
Organisation dealing with business concerns and interests.
Term to describe Germany at the end of WWII when many cities and town were destroyed and the government economy had ceased to function.
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