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Bonding and physical properties
Terms in this set (19)
The structure of the bromoalkane Z is...
Give the IUPAC name for Z.
Give the general formula of the homologous series of straight-chain bromoalkanes that contains one bromine atom per molecule.
Suggest one reason why 1-bromohexane has a higher boiling point than Z.
as it has more vdw forces between molecules
Give the full electron configuration of the Ni2+ ion.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8
Suggest why the melting point of sodium iodide is lower than the melting point of sodium bromide
as the iodide is a bigger ion so there is less attraction to the Na+ ion
Fluorine reacts with bromine to form liquid bromine trifluoride (BrF3).
State the type of bond between Br and F in BrF3 and state how this bond is formed.
covalent and it is formed by a shared pair of e-
Describe the structure of and bonding in graphite and explain why the melting point of graphite is very high
graphite is made up of carbon atoms connected by many strong covalent bonds that require a lot of energy to overcome and it has vdw forces between the layers
When H+ ions react with H2O molecules, H3O+ ions are formed. Name the type of bond formed when H+ ions react with H2O molecules. Explain how this type of bond is formed in the H3O+ ion.
dative covalent bond - lone pair of e- is donated by O to H
Explain why the second ionisation energy of sodium is greater than the second ionisation energy of magnesium.
As Na's second e- is removed from a 2p subshell but Mg's second e- is removed from a 3s sub-shell so sodiums e- is closer to the nucleus and has less shielding
In terms of its electronic configuration, give one reason why neon does not form compounds with sodium.
it has full shells
Name the three processes that occur in a mass spectrometer before the vaporised isotopes can be detected. State how each process is achieved.
Ionisation - high energy electrons fired at sample
Acceleration - With electric field
Deflection - magnet
Describe the bonding in, and the structure of, sodium chloride and ice. In each case draw a diagram showing how each structure can be represented.
Explain, by reference to the types of bonding present, why the melting point of these two compounds is very different
NaCl - has ionic bonding which is electrostatic attraction between oppositley charged ions and it has a lattice structure
Ice has covalent bonds between atoms and it has hydrogen bonding between moleucles but the hydrogen bonding in ice is much weaker so it requires less energy to break the hydrogen bonds in ice than to break the ionic bonds in NaCl
Explain how the concept of bonding and non-bonding electron pairs can be used to predict the shape of, and bond angles in, a molecule of sulfur tetrafluoride, SF4. Illustrate your answer with a diagram of the structure.
it has 4 bonding pairs and 1 lone pair of e- which repel to be as far apart as possible and the lone pair repels the bond pairs closer together which results in a trigonal bypyrimadial shape with bond angles of 90 and 120 degrees
Phosphorus exists in several different forms, two of which are white phosphorus and red phosphorus. White phosphorus consists of P4 molecules, and melts at 44°C. Red phosphorus is macromolecular, and has a melting point above 550°C.
Explain what is meant by the term macromolecular. By considering the structure and bonding present in these two forms of phosphorus, explain why their melting points are so different. (
a macromolecule is a giant molecule with covalent bonding
white - has a low mp as it has weak vdw forces
red- has many strong covalent bonds which requires a lot of energy to overcome
Compare the electrical conductivity of solid sodium metal with that of solid sodium chloride. Explain your answer
Na can conduct electricity but NaCl cant conduct electricity because the delocalised e- are free to move and carry charge but ions in a solid can't move
Diamond and graphite are both forms of carbon. Diamond is able to scratch almost all other substances, whereas graphite may be used as a lubricant.
Diamond and graphite both have high melting points. Explain each of these properties of diamond and graphite in terms of structure and bonding. Give one other difference in the properties of diamond and graphite
Diamond and graphite both have a giant covalent structure. Diamond is made up carbon atoms where each atom is joined to 4 other carbon atoms and this gives it a very rigid structure because there are many strong covalent bonds which require a lot of energy to overcome. Graphite is also made up of carbon atoms where each carbon atom is joined to 3 other carbon atoms and the atoms are joined by covalent bonds but graphite has weak vdw forced between its layers which makes it softer compared to diamond which is very hard, additionally graphite has delocalised e- so it can conduct electricity but diamond cant
Explain why magnesium has a higher melting point than sodium
it has more delocalised e- so theres a stronger attraction between the delocalised e- and the nuclei
Describe the bonding in a crystal of iodine
covalent between atoms
Van der Waals' between molecules
Explain why heat energy is required to melt an iodine crystal.
its required to break the bonds between molecules
why does hydrogen iodide require more heat energy for melting than hydrogen chloride
to break all bonds
Name the strongest type of intermolecular force between hydrogen fluoride molecules and draw a diagram to illustrate how two molecules of HF are attracted to each other.
In your diagram show all lone pairs of electrons and any partial charges.
Explain the origin of these charges. Suggest why this strong intermolecular force is not present between HI molecules.
the strongest IMF is hydrogen bonding
the dipole results from the electronegativity diference in the atoms
fluorine is more electronegative than H
H-I is likely to have a weaker dipole
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Covalent and dative covalent bonds
Shapes of molecules and ions
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