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Physical Education Mock Revision
Terms in this set (182)
the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles
what colour are type 1 muscle fibres?
what colour are type 2 muscle fibres?
the ability of a muscle or muscle group to undergo repeated contractions avoiding fatigue
the amount of force your muscles can exert in one movement against a resistance
the range of movement possible around a joint
ratio of body fat to lean body tissue
the ability to move and change direction quickly (at speed) while maintaining control.
the maximum rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time
The ability to produce a large amount of force in one action; power=strength x speed
The ability to use two or more body parts together
the maintenance of the centre of mass over the base of support
The time taken to respond to a stimulus.
fitness test for cardiovascular endurance
Multi stage fitness test and 12 min cooper run test
Fitness test for muscular endurance
abdominal curl test and press up test
Fitness test for muscular strength
hand grip test and 1 rep max test
Fitness test for flexibility
Sit and reach test
fitness test for body composition
skin fold calliper test
fitness test for agility
Illinois agility test
fitness test for speed
fitness test for power
Vertical jump test
fitness test for balance
Standing stork test
fitness test for coordination
alternate hand throw test
fitness test for reaction time
Ruler drop test
what is continuous training?
exercising for a sustained period of time without rest at steady state intensity
What is fartlek training?
Swedish name for 'speed play' whereby the work rate intensity and terrain change from high to lower and back to higher
What is interval training?
training method that incorporates periods of work interspersed with periods of rest
What is circuit training?
a series of exercises performed one after the other to complete 'a circuit' with a rest in between each circuit
What is plyometric training?
power training that makes use of body weight involving eccentric and concentric contractions
What is an eccentric contraction?
lengthening of the muscle
What is a concentric contraction?
shortening of the muscle
What is weight training?
physical training that involves lifting weights that includes repetitions, sets, and a 1 rep max
What is flexibility training?
The systematic stretching of the muscles, tendons and other connective tissue
what are the types of stretching?
static, active, passive, dynamic
what is static stretching?
stretching as far as possible and holding the stretch (about 30 secs)
what is active stretching?
holding a stretch in place using strength of your agonist muscle only
what is passive stretching?
holding a stretch in place with assistance of another body part or partner
what is dynamic stretching
Stretches that require lots of movement throughout a joints full range of motion (i.e. high knees, butt kicks, etc)
what is the acronym used for principles of training?
What is specificity?
training being specific to the movements, muscles used, and energy demands of the sport
what is progression?
making training harder when it becomes too easy so the body can continue to adapt
what is overload?
overloading the body more than normal so that adaption occurs(this includes Frequency, Intensity, Time)
what is frequency in overload?
how often you train
what is intensity in overload?
how hard you train
what is time in overload?
how long you train for
what is variance?
varying training to prevent boredom or a loss in motivation
what does warming up consist of?
pulse raiser, stretching, sport specific activity with higher intensity
What is PNF stretching?
a progressive stretch involving muscle contraction and relaxation
what are some benefits of warming up?
body temp is increased, increases flexibility, reduces injury chances, increases heart rate
what does cooling down consist of?
lower intensity activity, stretching, refuelling
what are some benefits of cooling down?
removal of waste products, reduces Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), heart rate and breathing rate slowly goes back to normal
What are carbohydrates used for?
high and low intensity energy, acts as a fuel
what are proteins used for?
tissue growth and repair, small bits of energy,
what are fats used for?
an energy source for low intensity energy
what are minerals used for?
bone growth, maintenance of regular body functions
What is water used for in the body?
prevents dehydration, keeps us hydrated
what are some mental health benefits of exercise
reduces stress levels, higher self esteem, release feel good hormone (serotonin)
what are some physical health benefits of exercising?
able to train regularly, less prone to injury, able to sustain exercise for longer, carry out every day tasks without getting tired
what are some social health benefits of exercising?
encourages team working skills, encourages cooperation skills with others, gives opportunities to make friends
what are some motivational strategies?
reward/money, praise, goal setting, feeling of pride
what is the acronym for factors affecting participation in sport?
what does CHIPPS stand for?
-Health and wellbeing
what aspects are in Cultural of CHIPPS?
what aspects are in Health and well being of CHIPPS?
what aspects are in Image of CHIPPS?
what aspects are in People of CHIPPS?
what aspects are in Politics of CHIPPS?
what aspects are in Socio-economic of CHIPPS?
what amount of exercise should children do per week?
7 x 60mins per week
what amount of exercise should adults do per week?
5 x 30mins per week
what are the factors of participation?
what are the functions of the skeletal system?
what are the parts of the vertebral column?
1. cervical vertebrae
2. thoracic vertebrae
3. lumbar vertebrae
what is the clavicle?
what is the sternum?
what are the ribs?
what is the humerus?
upper arm bone
what is the ulna and radius?
what are carpals?
what is the femur?
what is the tibia?
what are the tarsals?
what are the phalanges?
what is the cranium?
what is the scapula?
what is the spine?
what is the pelvic girdle?
what are the metacarpals?
what is the patella?
what is the fibula?
what is the mandible?
lower jaw bone
what is the sacrum?
a triangular bone in the lower back formed from fused vertebrae and situated between the two hip bones of the pelvis
what is the coccyx?
what are metatarsals?
what are long bones for?
helps translate the force generated by skeletal muscle into mechanical leverage
what are examples of long bones?
what are flat bones for?
helps protect the body's internal organs and with muscle attachment
what are examples of flat bones?
what are short bones for?
helps provide support and stability with little movement
what are examples of short bones?
what are examples of irregular bones?
what are irregular bones for?
helps with protection and support
what are hinge joints?
joints that provide movement in one plane for flexion and extension
what are ball and socket joints?
joints that provide 360 degree rotation and movement in all planes for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation
what are pivot joints?
joints that provide rotatory movement around a single axis for rotation
what are condyloid joints?
joints that provide movement in two planes for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
what are examples of hinge joints?
what are examples of ball and socket joints?
what are examples of pivot joints?
what are examples of condyloid joints?
what is flexion?
when the angle at the joint decreases
what is extension?
when the angle at the joint increases
what is rotation?
a turning or rotating movement around a single axis
what is circumduction?
the conical (circular) movement of a limb extending from the joint
what is abduction?
movement away from the midline of the body
what is adduction?
movement towards the midline of the body
what is plantar flexion?
movement at the ankle joint that points the foot downwards away from the shin
what is dorsi flexion?
movement at the ankle joint that points the foot upwards towards the shin
what are cardiac muscles?
muscles involuntarily controlled, found in the walls of the heart and do not fatigue
what are smooth muscles?
muscles involuntarily controlled, found in the walls of hollow organs e.g. intestines
what are skeletal muscles?
muscles voluntarily controlled, found throughout the body and are attached to bones by tendons
what is an antagonistic muscle pair?
a pair of muscles that work together to form movement
what is the antagonistic pair for the elbow?
biceps and triceps
what is the antagonistic pair for the knee?
hamstrings and quadriceps
what is the antagonistic pair for the shoulder?
deltoid, latissimus dorsi
what is concentric muscle contraction?
shortening of muscle
what is eccentric muscle contraction?
lengthening of muscle
what is isometric muscle contraction?
muscle maintains constant length as muscle tension increases
what are the three types of muscle fibres?
what is type 1 muscle fibre?
fibres with slow contraction velocity, very resistant to fatigue and are capable of repeated low level contractions by producing lots of ATP through oxidative metabolic processes
what is an example of athletes with type 1 muscle fibres?
what is type 11A muscle fibres?
fibres that manufacture and split ATP at a fast rate by using both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and produce fast and strong muscle contractions. they are more prone to fatigue
what is an example of athletes with type 11A muscle fibres?
what is type 11B muscle fibres?
fibres that produce ATP at a slow rate by anaerobic metabolism and breaks it down very quickly. this results in extremely fast muscle contractions to produce short, fast bursts of power and rapid fatigue
what is an example of athletes with type 11B muscle fibres?
all the anterior muscles
all the posterior muscles
what is total lung capacity?
the volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration
what is tidal volume?
the amount of air normally inhaled and exhaled per breath
what is vital capacity?
the maximum volume of air exhaled after the lungs have been filled to capacity
what are the parts of the respiratory system?
what is the equation for aerobic respiration?
glucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water
what is the equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose = lactic acid + energy
what is gaseous exchange?
the movement of oxygen from air inside the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide from the blood to the air inside the lungs
what are arteries?
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
what are veins?
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
what are capillaries?
blood vessels that are tiny with one cell thick walls and allow for diffusion
what are the characteristics of arteries?
- Carry blood away from the heart
- Have thicker walls
- Contain O2 rich blood in the systemic circuit
- Contain O2 poor blood in the pulmonary circuit
what are the characteristics of veins?
- Large lumen (keep blood flowing despite low pressure)
- Thinner walls
- Valves to keep blood flowing in right direction
what are the characteristics of capillaries?
- Extremely small
- Carry blood very close to every cell to exchange substances
- Permeable walls for diffusion
- One cell thick, increasing rate of diffusion by decreasing distance
what is vasodilation?
widening of blood vessels which decreases blood pressure
What is vasoconstriction?
narrowing of blood vessels which increases blood pressure
what is thermoregulation?
the control of temperature within the body
what is stroke volume?
the amount of blood ejected per beat
what is heart rate?
number of beats per minute
what is cardiac output (Q)?
the amount of blood leaving the heart in a minute
how is cardiac output measured?
stroke volume x heart rate
what is blood pressure?
the strength exerted by the blood on the vessel walls as a result of the heart beating
what is alveoli?
tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow gaseous exchange
what is concentration?
the amount of something, for example, a high concentration of oxygen
what is haemoglobin?
red pigment that is attracted to oxygen in red blood cell
what is inspiratory reserve volume?
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
what is expiratory reserve volume?
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
what is aerobic exercise?
exercise in the presence of enough oxygen
what is anaerobic exercise?
exercise without enough oxygen
what is adenosine triphosphate?
a molecule that provides energy within the cell
what is creatine phosphate?
energy rich organic compound that provides high levels of energy
what is lactic acid?
compound produced when glycogen is broken down without enough oxygen being present
what is anaerobic threshold?
the point during exercise at which lactic acid starts to significantly increase
what is oxygen debt?
the additional oxygen that must be taken into the body after exercise to restore all systems to their normal states
what are the short term effects of exercise for muscular body system?
-muscle elasticity increases
-increase in temp within the muscle
what are the short term effects of exercise for skeletal body system?
-joint mobility improves allowing easier movement
what are the short term effects of exercise for cardiovascular body system?
-stroke volume increases
-cardiac output increases
-heart rate increases
-blood pressure changes
what are the short term effects of exercise for cardio respiratory body system?
-breathing becomes more frequent
-tidal volume increases
-minute ventilation increases
what are the short term effects of exercise for energy systems body system?
-the production of waste products depends on energy demand
what are the long term effects of exercise for muscular body system?
-improved tone/ hypertrophy (size)
what are the long term effects of exercise for skeletal body system?
-bone density increases
what are the long term effects of exercise for cardiovascular body system?
-hypertrophy of left ventricle
-improved ability to utilise oxygen e.g. capillarisation of muscles and lungs causing more 02 to diffuse
what are the long term effects of exercise for cardio respiratory body system?
-increased vital capacity
-increased efficiency e.g. increase in minute ventilation. Get more 02 into body and remove more C02
what are the long term effects of exercise for energy systems body system?
-ability to withstand lactic acid
-ability to remove more lactic acid, therefore delaying fatigue
what are the SMART targets?
What is residual volume?
amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced expiration
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