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Terms in this set (19)
What s the end product of glycolysis?
What types of anaerobic respiration are there?
Ethanol fermentation and lactate fermentation.
What is ethanol fermentation?
The conversion of pyruvate to ethanol under anaerobic conditions
Where does ethanol fermentation take place?
Plants and yeast.
What converts pyruvate to ethanal? Whats produced as a by-product?
The enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase. CO2
How is ethanal is then reduced to ethanol?
It's catalysed by ethanol dehydrogenase and NADH is oxidised to NAD.
What's lactate fermentation?
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate.
Where does lactate fermentation take place?
Animals and some bacteria
Where would you most likely expect lactate fermentation to take place?
Skeletal muscle when there is an insufficient oxygen supply, such as during exercise.
How is pyruvate is reduced to lactate?
It's catalysed by lactate dehydrogenase and NADH is oxidised to NAD.
Why does anaerobic respiration produce far less ATP than aerobic respiration? Extended answer
-Anaerobic respiration relies on substrate level phosphorylation in the glycolytic pathway to produce a net 2 ATP per glucose.
-Aerobic respiration produces 2 ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis, 2 ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation in the Krebs cycle and around 32 ATP from oxidative phosphorylation.
Why does anaerobic respiration produce far less ATP than aerobic respiration? Short
32 ATP from oxidative phosphorylation can't be produced as it doesn't occur in anaerobic respiration due to a lack of oxygen
Anaerobic respiration regenerates a molecule which is essential for the continuation of substrate-level phosphorylation when there is no oxidative phosphorylation.What is this molecule?
What is the product of the first reaction in glycolysis?
Glucose-6-phosphate is the product of the first reaction in glycolysis and its further conversion in the glycolytic pathway is under equilibrium. Its structure is very similar to that of glucose. Explain how this might create a mechanism of regulation. (High levels of ATP)
When levels of ATP in the cell are high, the enzyme ATP Synthase will slow down. This will then slow down the electron transport chain and result in increased levels of NADH. This will cause the rate of glycolysis to decrease.
Glucose-6-phosphate is the product of the first reaction in glycolysis and its further conversion in the glycolytic pathway is under equilibrium. Its structure is very similar to that of glucose. Explain how this might create a mechanism of regulation. (Inhibition)
If the rate of glycolysis decreases, less glucose-6-phosphate will be used up. Because it has a similar structure to glucose, glucose-6-phosphate may act as a competitive inhibitor by binding to the active site of the enzyme that produces it, rather than glucose.
Glucose-6-phosphate is the product of the first reaction in glycolysis and its further conversion in the glycolytic pathway is under equilibrium. Its structure is very similar to that of glucose. Explain how this might create a mechanism of regulation (Regulation mechanism)
This means when energy levels are high, the first step of glycolysis is inhibited. Therefore, glucose is not used up when the cell has enough energy.
What happens when there's no final electron acceptor?
The proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane can't be maintained. This also means the reduced NAD and FAD can't unload their hydrogen atoms at the inner mitochondrial membrane
What does reduced NAD and FAD being unable to unload their hydrogen atoms at the inner mitochondrial membrane do?
Prevent the link reaction, krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation from occuring
Recommended textbook explanations
Modern Biology: Student Edition
Janet L. Hopson, Postlethwait
Johnson, Peter H. Raven
Biology Study Guide
Biology The Dynamics of Life
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