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Arts and Humanities
Unit 3 - learning aims A+C
Terms in this set (58)
What does P.E.C.C.S stand for?
Physical - fine and gross motor skills
Emotional - learn to express emotions appropriately , close link to behaviour
Cognitive - cognitive thinking
Communication and language - speaking correctly/communicating emotions.
Social - interactions with others , build friendships
What is physical play?
Play that allows children to move their body in turn using up their energy.
Examples include: running, skipping, dancing etc.
-improve muscles/bones/overall health
-fine and gross motor skills
What is imaginative play?
Using pretend, role play and imagination to act out past experiences or make up new ones entirely
Examples: dress up, drinking from empty cup, objects to resemble other objects, teddy bears as pic nick guests.
-organisation and planning skills
What is sensory play?
Play that stimulates our senses.
Examples: sand pits, water, slime, glitter jar, painted pasta.
-help build nerve connections in brains developing neural pathways
What is creative art and design?
Play that allows a child to express their creative side and imagination in the form of art.
Examples: painting, singing, sculpting, designing.
-develop human qualities (e.g. expression, creativity, identity)
-confidence and self esteem
What is construction play?
Play where the child builds and manipulates the shape of objects.
Examples: wooden planks, tires and rope, Lego, play-doh, train set, pillow fort.
-problem solving skills
-develop small muscles in hands and fingers
PECCS - Social development
-Through play children are able to build friendships and develop on their social skills (especially in later stages/adult initiated play) this can also be tied in with language development.
-imaginative play helps the child make sense of the world through playing out real world or new scenarios with peers.
-play gives children the freedom to make mistakes and learn from them
PECCS - cognitive development
-free flow play helps children develop creativity
-structured play helps children engage in sustained and shared thinking with others
-structured and free flow play help children develop problem solving skills
-children can develop early mathematical concepts of volume and shape through play
PECCS - communication and language
-when children are in the social stage of play they are encouraged to communicate with each other about what they're doing and what they wish to happen
-through numerous interactions they'll develop communication and language skills
PECCS - physical
-helps develop stigma (the ability to keep going)
-sensory, construction and creative play help children develop fine motor movements
-construction, physical and imaginative play help children develop gross motor movements
PECCS - emotional development
-adult initiated/structured play help children develop emotionally and behaviourally by giving the opportunity to engage in shared and sustained thinking with adults.
-free flow and imaginative play help children to cope with transition times and significant events in their life. Children can also develop, self awareness, confidence and independence through all play types.
-things children say during play can raise safeguarding issues that shouldn't be underestimated.
How play interests and resources change according to a child's age and stage of development. ( 0-18 months )
-repetitive, simple moment combined with adult facial expression seem to be important for learning
-can spend time playing and exploring objects independently
-everyday routine can become playful opportunities
-adult supervision is essential
How play interests and resources change according to a child's age and stage of development (18 months - 3 years)
-feel need to play near/with adult for reassurance and disengage from activities if they can't see 'their adult.'
-show interest in other children but adult supported is needed for play with others
-sensory play is enjoyed and can be engaged for longer periods (30mins) without adult support.
-play is exploratory, repetitive and involves gross motor movements
-adult supervision is needed for safety
-adult involvement required to support engagement.
How play interests and resources change according to a child's age and stage of development (3-4yrs)
-start to show cooperation but supervision needed to sort out sharing of equipment
-children enjoy playing independently and may seek to play out sight of adult
-enjoy simple games in small group with adult
-sensory materials tend to be popular and played away from adult
How play interests and resources change according to a child's age and stage of development (4-7 yrs & 11 months)
-usually cooperative , can sustain group play without adult involvement
-activities that Interest the child can be sustained for periods of 1hr+
-role play gets more complex with assigned roles
-enjoy bored games/ games with rules/ competing activities alone.
Play activities (0-2)
Treasure basket play - supervised for safety, keep things in low basket that can reach, approx 30 natural material objects, free to choose, free to explore object
Adult initiated play - they start the play, common for 0-2 as they wouldn't have made friends yet, examples: build blocks and knock down, role ball, action rhymes (songs with actions eg head shoulders knees and toes)
Heuristic play - same as treasure basket but contains man made as well as natural objects
Play activities (2-7yrs)
Small world play (imaginative):
Examples: Lego, car in car mat.
Benefits: improve language, learn to share, use imagination, independence.
Painting and mark making (creative):
Examples: water on walls, paint hands-put on paper, marks in sand/flour.
Benefits: creativity, motor skills, imagination, express feelings.
Role play (imaginative):
Examples: dress up, acting.
Benefits: confidence, express personality, improve communication, learn to cooperate, investigate real life situations.
Malleable material (imaginative):
Examples: sand, water, play-doh.
Benefits: think about shapes, creativity, improve senses.
Puzzles and games (don't fit a play type):
Examples: snakes and ladders, snap, memory game, big jigsaws.
Benefits: cognitive development, problem solving skills, hand eye coordination.
3 factors to decide what is appropriate for an early years setting ...
Suitable based on...
-ages and stages
What makes play purposeful?
-teach basic life skills
-discover new things and senses
-build social skills
-having fun whilst learning
-learn from others
-help to grow healthy and physically
Definitions of play:
Structured play -
-has a plan
-has end goal
-mostly older children but can be applied to all
-set up/ pre-organised
-allow children to choose type of play, what and with who
-more in early years however still in all ages
0-2yrs = 1:3
2yrs = 1:4
3yrs = 1:8
3yrs can also be 1:13 with a level 6 qualification
-interests change as child develops
-change due to health and safety
-make sure they support child's learning based on age of development
-type of play they are learning must be reflected in the resources in the setting
Resources your setting could have for ages 18months-2yrs...
-hand made play doh ( non toxic)
Resources your setting could have for ages 2-3yrs...
-pens and paper
-small world resources (eg wooden train track)
Resources your setting could have for ages 3-5yrs...
-role play props/costumes
How can play help children to learn how to value and respect others?
-teaches to share
-if they do something that makes someone sad they'll realise it's bad
-being observed and corrected by someone
How would you recognise children's play interests?
OBSERVE! Free flow play is good for this
How would you build on play interests you notice?
-structure play —-> child initiated/structured
-put out resources of/related to interest
How do you balance safety and purposeful/challenging play?
-complete risk assessments
-know your children (you may be able to notice dangerous behaviour that may develop)
What is the difference between adult led and adult initiated?
Led- play that is organised and led by the adult eg story time.
Initiated- play that is set up by the adult for the child to discover eg arts and crafts
How can you make adult initiated play purposeful?
-provide appropriate equipment
-build on children's interests
- teach everyday skills
-adult play partner/ director depending on level of structure
What skills do you need to deliver purposeful adult Initiated play?
-knowledge of child
(One that look like ice cream cone): the BSI kite mark- means British standard institution has tested it and certified it to be up to standards.
(CE): not a safety marker but shows that the product is intended for sale in the EU
(Lion in yellow triangle): the lion mark shows that the manufacturer is a member of the British toy and hobby association and is bound by a strict code of practise for product safety and advertising.
What are Mildred Partens social stages of play?
-Unoccupied play: not playing , just observing
-solitary play: playing independently (alone)
-onlooker play: watches others play, don't engage
-parallel play: play alongside/ near others but does not play with them
-associative play: child starts to interact with others but not a large amount of interaction
-cooperative play: when child plays together with others and has interests in both activity and other activity.
What does the practitioner need to make play purposeful?
-understand what to provide that's age and stage appropriate
-provide toys children can learn from
-be able to encourage children to participate
-care for child's health , wellbeing and education
-good communication skills
-remain on child's level (height)
-aware of surrounding (vidulance)
-modelling new skills
What is highly structured - adult directed play?
-unlikely to be effective in young children
-children told what they will be doing
-the adult explains how to play and use resources. -The adult discourages children from using resources differently to how they've been instructed.
What is structured- adult directed play?
- children asked if they are interested in taking part
-play is based on children's interests or something the children are likely to enjoy
-children free to leave at any time
-adult is a play partner not director
What is structured play where children are directed?
-environment is set up ready for play
-children encouraged to play with different materials and may be given specific tasks.
-children are not encouraged to deviate from the purpose of play.
What is structured play that children can choose to use and deviate from?
-resources put out in ways to prompt children to play in certain ways or guide play interest forward.
-children are free to ignore prompts or use them in other ways as they play.
How can a EYE promote diversity, equality, inclusion?
-provide dolls of different race/body shape/gender etc
-celebrate religious festivals
-talk about it
-encourage to play with other genders
-team work activities
How to support purposeful play by building supportive relationships...
-relationship between adult and child from start
-relationship between child and peers (4/7yrs)
-child must Feel comfortable to be who they are.
How to support purposeful play by extending children's physical, communication and social skills...
-interact over common tasks
- 1 to 1 with EYE
-physical play —> help develop team work, learn how to communicate and be kind to others
How to support purposeful play by encouraging higher level thinking skills....
-respond to interests of engagement
-use previous observations for extending current mile stones.
How to support purposeful play by being a play partner...
-engage them by showing new things
-do what they want to
-don't redirect what child's doing
How to support purposeful play by recognising learning potentials of unplanned event
-children may do unplanned longer than planned activities
-learning can be spontaneous
-don't waste unplanned learning opportunities
What should you think about when organising a class environment?
-adult to child ratios and how much space is needed for the amount of children
-ask yourself if you need more support with certain child eg if in wheelchair or crutches , may need to have/create more space for them to reach resources , you can also talk to their dedicated person in order to know more of the child's needs.
Supporting children's group leaning and socialisation...
Play helps develops social skills such as , turn taking, following instructions/rules and adult directed play can be a good starting point.
By working with small child groups it is easier to ensure interactivity and it provides a richer learning experience by giving them the opportunity to interact with an adult and each other.
Ways of engaging children in group learning and socialisation....
-put in groups and give child a set role which all at end come together to make final piece
-show and tell with questions at end
-team sport activities
-quizzes with groups
Who is Tina Bruce?
Author and professor of early childhood education at roehampton university in the uk. Tina has 25 books all of which are based on young children's development and care or their mothers. She also came up with the 12 features of free flow play.
What are Tina Bruce's features of free flow play?
1)children use first hand experience from life;
2)children make up rules as they play in order to keep control
3)children symbolically represent as they play, making and adopting play props
4)children choose to play - they cannot be made
5)children rehearse their future in their role play
6)they sometimes play alone
7)they pretend when they play
8)children play with other children and adults cooperatively in pairs or groups
9)children have a personal play agenda which may or not be shared
10)children are deeply involved and difficult to distract from their deep learning as they wallow in their play and learning
11)children try out their most recently acquired skills and competences as if celebrating what they know
12)children coordinate ideas and feelings and make sense of relationships with their families friends and culture.
What is child initiated play?
Activities the child choose what and how and who with
How can you make child initiated activities purposeful?
-don't deviate from what child starts learning
What skills do you need to support child initiated play?
-know your student
-good level of understanding
-caring but not distructive
Skills in adult directed play (PECCS) - physical
Role of adult...
-put out suitable equipment based on child's stage and interests
-encourage and reassure babies/children to attempt new movements
-model/join in to help child practice a skill
-plan play activities that develop specific movement skills
Skills in adult directed play (PECCS) -emotional and behavioural
Role of adult...
-plan play activities that allow children to express their feeling
-join in activities to encourage a stronger bond
-observe children playing to understand how they are feeling
-provide encouragement to build self esteem
Skills in adult directed play (PECCS) - cognitive
Role of adult....
-put out interesting objects
-combine toys and resources to encourage engagement and learning
-draw children's attention to learning opportunities in play
Skills in adult directed play (PECCS) - communication and language
Role of adult ...
-put out new materials for new talking points
-ensure there are plenty of small world and role play props that encourage to use language
-take an interest in what children are doing and make sure to use questioning , chatting and listening skills.
Skills in adult directed play (PECCS) - social
Role of adult...
-plan play opportunities to prompt children to play alongside each other
-join in with to model turn taking and supporting others as well as developing social skills.
How can scaffolding support purposeful play?
-can use a target to reach milestones
-slowly remove support as child improves
-put out new materials
-take advantage of natural occurring opportunities
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