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Urban growth creates opportunities and challenges for cities in LICs and NEEs
(Rio de Janeiro)
Terms in this set (12)
What is urban growth?
the increase in the area covered by cities
State Rio's location.
Rio de Janeiro is located in SE Brazil in South America, on the Atlantic Ocean coast.
Why is Rio important city?
-Cultural capital of Brazil, hosting a large carnival
- 5 major ports of Brazil+ produces 5% of Brazil's GDP
-Christ of the Redeemer- a new 'wonder of the world'
-Hosted 2016 Olympics+ 2014 World Cup
What were the social challenges in Rio?
Access to health+ education:
-Only 1/2 of the kids continue their education after the age 14.
-Only 55% of the city has access to clinics
-Infant mortality is 50 per 1000 deaths.
Access to energy:
-12% of Rio's population has no running water
-37% is lost through leaks+ illegal access
-Droughts make water more expensive
Access to energy:
-Frequent power cuts+ blackouts
-Many poorer people get their electricity by illegally tapping into the main supply.
What were the social opportunities in Rio?
-Medical staff detect and treat twenty different diseases in people's homes
- Gov. gave school grants to poor families+ a private university in Rochina favela
Access to water resources:
-7 new treatment plants+ 300 km new pipes were laid
-By 2014, 95% of the population had mains water
Access to energy resources:
-60 km of new power lines have been built+ a nuclear generator is being built
What were the economic challenges in Rio?
Reducing unemployment and crime:
-Unemployment is up to 20%
-Most people work in the informal economy where jobs are poorly paid and irregular.
-High murder rate 20 per 1000 people
-Drug gangs dominate favelas.
What were the economic solutions in Rio?
Unemployment and crime:
1. The School of Tomorrow programme aims to improve education in the poor and violent areas
2. Free child care is provided to enable teenage parents to return to education
3. In 2013, Pacifying Police Units (UPPs) were established to reclaim favelas from drug dealers.
4. Police have taken control of some crime-dominated favelas.
Environmental challenges created by urban growth
Rubbish cannot be disposed+ builds up on the street/ burned- increases the risk of disease+ air pollution( causes 5000 deaths per year).
-Power plants consumes 30 tonnes of rubbish a day
Rivers polluted by open sewers in the favelas and this goes into Guanabara Bay, which is a popular tourist area.
Steep mountain prevent roads from being built, the num. of cars has increased by 40% in the last decade- roads are very congested.
How do Industrial Areas stimulate economic development?
-They are set up near ports+ airports- an easy access to trade+ attract foreign companies
-Built near major road+ railway connections to be able to allow transport of products inside the country.
Slums, squatter settlements: what are the challenges with them?
-Squatter settlements in Rio are called favelas
-Up to 1000 favelas around Rio
-Rochina favelas- the largest one +population of 75000.
-Built on a hillside looking down at the richer parts of the city.
Give an example of Urban planning improving quality of life for the urban poor
Favela Bairro Project- set up to improve life in favelas.
Provide land+ services to built homes
- Self- help schemes- local residents provided with building materials to replace home-made shelters
-Legal rights to own properties+ low rent
-Paved roads- transport systems extended to connect the favelas to the city centre+ industrial areas
e.g. a cable car system- 1 free return ticket a day
-Security improved: UPP+ police control/reduce crime and drug abuse
-New towns built to relocate people (Campo Grande)
Has the Favela Bairro Project been a success or failure?
-The quality of life, mobility+ employment prospects of the inhabitants have improved
-For some, houses are better than favelas
-The newly built infrastructure is not being maintained
-Residents lack the skill+ resources to make repairs
-More training is needed to improve literacy+ employment
-Campo Grande lacks a sense of community, has no shops+ and 90 min drive from the city centre
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