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UBS Edinburgh Napier - reproductive system
Terms in this set (128)
Describe the physical feature of the cervix that changes during labour
Narrow- widens during labour
What are the cervical canals lined with?
mucus secreting glands
What's formed by cervical mucus except during ovulation?
Where do sperm reach maturity?
what's the function of the epididymis?
collect sperm from the testis and provides a place for them to mature
what's the function of the mucus plug (F)?
barrier to sperm and bacteria
what happens to cervical mucus during ovulation?
becomes thinner and clearer
how to sperm use cervical mucus during ovulation?
to swim up the Fallopian tube
what's another name for the fallopian tubes?
where does fertilisation occur?
what can mucus secreting glands of the cervix do with sperm and for how long?
store up to 5 days
pregnancy is most likely to occur if sex takes place how many days before ovulation?
what information is important to know about someone receiving emergency contraception?
where they are in their cycle
what is the 'body' of the uterus called?
what physical properties does the uterus's corpus have? (2)
1. very muscular 2. stretchy
what is the lining of the uterus called?
what happens to the endometrium during menstruation?
what happens to the endometrium in the first half of the menstrual period and why?
thickens to accommodate and sustain a foetus
what are the uterine tubes also known as? how long are they?
fallopian tubes. 4-5 inches
the fallopian tubes extend between which two structures?
upper edges of the uterus- ovaries
what is notable about the point where the fallopian tubes and ovaries meet?
they don't connect
The fallopian tubes funnel out into what?What are on the ends of these?
what happens to the egg when it bursts from the ovary?
guided into fallopian tubes by fimbriae
what are the fallopian tubes lined with that help the movement of the egg along them?
which structures (F) are pearl coloured, oblong and the size of a walnut?
how are the ovaries attached to the uterus
what are the functions of the ovaries
produce hormones and storage of ova
what hormones are produced by the ovaries
oestrogen and progesterone
what are oocytes?
immature eggs within follicles
what tissues are breasts comprised of? (3)
3. fibrous connective
Through what does the sperm travel between the epidiymis and the back of the prostate?
What does the breast contain about 20 of? What do they themselves contain?
what kind of structure do lobules have and what's their purpose?
what's the name of the sebaceous glands under the skin of the areolar?
what are the two main functions of the montgomery tubercles?
1. lubricate lactation
2. lymphatic drainage
what are some examples of disorders of the female reproductive system?
1. pelvic inflammatory disease
3. poly-cystic ovaries
what's the name for the thin skinned sac that protects the testes
what's notable about the temperature of the testes?
they're 2 degrees lower than the rest of the body
what can the testes do for warmth and protection?
contract closer to the body
what's the average size of a testis
what are the 2 functions of the testes
1. sperm production
2. testosterone production
what's the name for the microscopic tubule measuring almost 20 feet in (M reproductive system)
what are the vans deferens also known as?
what part of the M reproductive system is blocked when someone has a vasectomy?
what's found above the prostate and joins with the vans deferens to make the form the ejaculatory ducts?
what do the prostate and seminal vesicles produce fluid for?
nourishment of sperm
why does sperm require nourishment?
energy for the long distance they travel
what does most of the liquid element of semen consist of?
fluid produced by the seminal vesicals and prostate
which structure is found under the bladder and surrounds the urethra in males?
what happens to the prostate with age and what effect can this have?
block urine flow
which structure in males has a role in the reproductive and urinary systems?
what two functions does the male urethra carry out?
passageway for urine and ejaculate
what coiled structure makes up most of the testicle?
what's shed during menstruation (3)
1. endometrial lining
2. unfertilised ovum
what are the 6 hormones involved in the menstrual cycle?
1.gonadotropin- releasing hormone
2. follicle-stimulating hormone
3. lutenising hormone
which hormone is secreted by both testis and ovary, and decreases FSH but not LH secretion by pituitary cell
when is day 1 of the menstrual cycle?
first day of menstruation
what are days 1 to 15 of the menstrual cycle known as?
by what is oestrogen released during the follicular phase?
what are the three effects of oestrogen during the follicular phase?
1. controls gonadotropin releasing hormone secretions by the hypothalamus
2. triggers the release of FHS and LH by the anterior pituitary
3. thickening of the endometrium
from where are FHS and LH secreted?
What are gonadotropins?
FSH and LH
what is the main follicle in a particular menstrual cycle known as?
what happens around day 14 of the menstrual cycle?
graafian follicle ruptures and the ovum is released (ovulation)
What causes ovulation?
surge of LH
what does the empty graafian follicle become?
What does the corpus luteum do?
secretes estrogen and progesterone
what is the phase after ovulation known as?
the luteal phase
during the luteal phase oestrogen and progesterone inhibit the secretion of what?
LH and FSH
the shaft of the penis has three cylinders of what?
what two parts of the penis are filled with blood during an erection
1. corpora cavernosa
2. corpus spongiosum
which part of the penis is separated by a septum?
through which part of the glans does the urethra run?
what are some examples of disorders of the male reproductive system?
3. erectile dysfunction
what is released by the maturing ovum in the follicular phase?
which part of the penis is attached to the superficial peroneal pouch and not externally visible?
what is the superficial peroneal pouch also known as?
why are FHS and LH inhibited in the luteal phase?
to prevent the maturation/release of more follicles
when does fertilisation occur during the menstrual cycle?
day 14-16 (luteal phase)
lack of which hormones cause the endometrium break down during days 21-28 of the menstrual cycle?
oestrogen and progesterone
What do Leydig cells produce? (M)
what is converted to make testosterone?
Where are gonadotropins produced?
Where is gonadotropin releasing hormone produced?
What does gonadotropin releasing hormone do?
promotes secretion of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
where is most of the cholesterol for testosterone production obtained?
what effect does testosterone released during puberty have on males?
development of secondary sexual characteristics
what's the medical term for sperm production?
what male reproductive organ is made up of the root, shaft/body and glans
what process is carried out on the sperm by the epididymis?
how many sperm are produced in one ejaculation?
by what process does the epididymis weed out defective sperm?
what are some female secondary sexual characteristics
1. enlarged hips
3. pubic/ body hair
4. breast development
what are some male secondary sexual characteristics?
1. facial hair
2. broadening of shoulders
3. voice deepens
4. pubic/ body hair
5. deepening of voice
what is the term for the external parts of the female reproductive system?
what's the name for the mound of pubic tissue on the pubic bone?
what are the folds of skin below the mons pubis called?
what function does the labia majora serve?
what is the opening of the vagina called?
what's the name for the muscular tube that connects the uterus to the external organs of the reproductive system?
what are some of the functions of the vagina? (4)
1. sexual intercourse
2. menstrual passageway
3. connecting the external organs to the womb
4. exit route for a baby
what are the vagina's two main physical properties that assist its function?
1. it's muscular
2. it's flexible
what is the vagina lined with?
Where is the cervix located?
between uterus and vagina
what anchors the womb in place?
ligaments (eg round/broad)
what is the function of the uterus?
receive, retain, and nourish a fertilised ovum
what happens to the egg during days 17-20 of the menstrual cycle?
travels down fallopian tubes to enter the uterus
what does the corpus luteum become once it's degenerated?
where do sperm go once they've matured?
what happens to the corpus luteum if it's not fertilised? What does it stop doing?
degenerates. progesterone and oestrogen
where does spermiogenesis take place?
surface of the sertoli cells in testes
how does the ovum pass from the ovary to the fallopian tube?
guided by fimbriae
which pea sized glands at either side of the vaginal opening provide lubrication?
how many nerve endings does the clitoris have?
how long is an average adult vagina?
from which 3 places does the vagina receive lubrication?
1. cells on the surface
2. glands in the cervix
3. bartholin's glands
which organ is thick walled, muscular, pear shaped and found behind the bladder in women?
What process of cell division is used to create gametes?
the effects of progesterone and oestrogen on LH and FSH are an example of what?
what does the muscle in the root of the penis do?
enables an erection
which part of the penis is suspended from the pubic area?
which is the most distal part of the penis?
Which part of the penis has the external urethral orifice?
what do the hormones secreted from the seminiferous tubules stimulate the production of?
what effect do progesterone and oestrogen have on the endometrium during the luteal phase?
cause it to thicken
what are the three parts of the penis called
what are the cells in the seminiferous tubules responsible for the majority of?
What are the seminiferous tubules lined/layered with?
lined with hormones and layered with epithelium
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
UBS - Edinburgh Napier - Microbiology
UBS - Edinburgh Napier - The Skin
UBS- Edinburgh Napier - endocrine system
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