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sociology education 4: feminism
Terms in this set (43)
what is the feminist perspective upon education?
states that the system perpetuates a patriarchal ideology that leads girls into lower paid worker positions
why was girls' achievement an issue within the education system previous to the 1980s?
not much was academically expected of girls, as they were assumed to finish school and transition into their traditional expressive roles (housewife, mother, etc.)
what did heaton and lawson (1996) state maintained the patriarchal ideology within the educational system?
the hidden curriculum taught patriarchal values in schools
. traditional family structures in textbooks, and subjects specifically aimed towards each gender
> gender divisions in PE and sport and the gender division of labour in schools
what was the aim of sue sharp's (1994) "just like a girl" study?
to compare the attitudes towards school of working-class girls in london during the early 1970s, and then later in 1990
what were the main priorities of the 1970s girls in sue sharp's (1990) "just like a girl" study?
what were the main priorities of the 1990s girls in sue sharp's (1990) "just like a girl" study?
. being able to support themselves
why did the 1990s girls in sue sharp's (1990) "just like a girl" study seem to be more cautious about the idea of marriage?
they'd seen relationships break around them, and also wanted to be more focused on independence through being highly educated
what was the biggest difference in personality between the 1970s and 1990s girls in sue sharp's (1990) "just like a girl" study?
the 90s girls were more confident, assertive, committed, and ambitious towards greater equality between men and women
what are the reasons for girls educationally achieving higher than boys since the 1990s?
. second wave feminism
. feminisation of education
. higher career aspirations
. rise of educated female role models
what did second wave feminism accomplish?
focused on issues of equality and discrimination in all aspects of society
feminisation of education
women increasingly moving into professional careers also meant that schools had a higher rate of female teachers over the predominantly male career path
how does the feminisation of education help inspire young girls?
female teachers help give a positive, educated role model to young girls and inspire them to achieve higher
what conclusion did mitsos and browne (1998) reach in their research?
in coeducation schools, females worked harder, spent more time on homework, were better organised, and were more likely to meet deadlines than boys were
what did mcrobbie and garber (1994) research in their study "bedroom culture"?
parents dissuade daughters from going out in comparison to their sons as there is a perceived higher risk of danger, so their bedroom becomes their sacred spaces as they spend most of their time there
what is "bedroom culture" (mcrobbie and garber, 1994)?
girls have the safety of a TV or computer to be able to express their emotions without fear or intimidation - also offers the communication and entertainment they would have received if parents allowed them out
what is the conclusion of mcrobbie and garber's (1994) "bedroom culture" study?
girls are socialised into avoiding misbehaviour, as they are virtually "trapped in their rooms" - girls are more likely to stay inside as they are more likely to be accused of sexual impropriety, and face psychological harm, and as a result, find it safer in their bedrooms than outside
why are girls expectations on behaviour higher than boys?
the idea that "boys will be boys" highlights that they're rowdy, attention-seeking, and always down for a laugh. if girls portrayed any signs of those behaviours, it would be more challenged by teachers
why would rowdy behaviour in girls be more challenged by teachers than it would with boys?
girls have been socialised into being more passive, obedient and subservient, which therefore makes it almost "out of character" when perceived masculine traits are seen within a female student
what can be constituted as evidence for schools having more "rigid" controls on their female students than their male ones?
girls can be punished or sent home for looking a certain way - eg. wearing certain jewellry, makeup, or for the way their uniforms are worn
what is the message that can be sent from these "rigid" controls?
male education is more important than female
parents channelling their children's interests in the particular direction of their gender
is canalisation a part of primary or secondary socialisation?
both - it starts within the family, and continues outwards into education and further into the world
what did glenys lobban discover about childrens' toys and books?
traditional kids toys and books often present female characters in domestic roles, and male characters as more adventurous and daring (more dominant within society)
how can gender socialisation within education actually give girls an advantage?
girls are socialised into obedience, and are seen as being an ideal pupil
it gives the idea that boys have a lack of control, and teachers have a lower expectation of their academic success
encourages each student to choose subjects that tie in with their ideas about their genders
tasks and activities that are deemed male and female
traditionally "male" domains
maths and science
traditionally "female" domains
arts and humanities
how has feminism helped to ease these fixed educational roles?
they've fought to make the domains less fixed, and to make traditionally "male" domains more accessible to young girls
give two programmes that have been set up to achieve this
GIST (girls in science and technology)
WISE (women in science and engineering)
has increased the interest in STEM subjects in girls
what is the downside of making traditionally "male" domains less fixed?
they haven't fought for the same for female domains. artistic subjects still hold the stigma of being too "girly", and are viewed to have no economical value
what is the insinuation behind artistic subjects holding no economical value?
traditionally feminine subjects have less value than male ones
what changes in legislation have helped make education and society more equal for women?
. equal pay act (1970)
. sex discrimination act (1975)
. employment protection act (1975)
equal pay act (1970)
men and women are paid the same amounts for the same jobs to prohibit favouritism
sex discrimination act (1975)
equality and opportunity between men and women in the workplace
employment protection act (1975)
made it illegal to fire a woman for being pregnant
despite clear progression within equality for girls in education and the workplace, what problems still remain?
. the gender pay gap
. the glass ceiling
the glass ceiling
an invisible barrier that prevents a given demographic from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy
> for feminism, it is the career blocks for high-achieving women
how has the glass ceiling been normalised?
girls are more likely to take time off for child-rearing, work part time and to carry out the majority of housework tasks
> the education system largely normalises this and so, even highly-qualified women often accept this as inevitable or normal
what is a liberal feminist's view upon education?
progression has been made, but there's more that can be done
what are some examples of progression within education for women?
. subjects become optional, there are quite clear gender preferences for one subject or another, but all subjects are open to all pupils
. girls now outperform boys in education so if the system is a patriarchal one, designed to favour boys, it is singularly failing
what did michelle stanworth (1983) state about the education system?
there will still higher expectations of boys and teachers would be more likely to recommend boys apply for higher education than girls at the same academic level
how do radical feminists argue that the education system is still widely patriarchal?
. the hidden curriculum
. kat banyard (2011) - looked at sexual harassment in education and how it is not treated as seriously as other forms of bullying, and how schools are unwilling to challenge male behaviour
what is the theory about male underachievement and success within society?
males, despite underachieving academically, hold the majority of top societal positions, earn more money, and have greater societal power
jackson et al (2010) states that despite this imbalance, the concern of current government policy is to tackle educational underachievement in boys, rather than tackling inequality in wider society
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