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Particle Model of Matter
Terms in this set (73)
What does the particle model of matter state?
That everything is made up of lots of tiny particles
What can the particle model explain?
Density and the three states of matter
What is density?
A measure of the 'compactness' of a substance
Equation for density.
What is density measured in?
What is mass measured in?
What is volume measured in?
What does the density of an object depend on?
what it is made of and how its particles are arranged
How are the particles arranged in a dense material?
They are tightly packed together
What are the particles in a less dense material arranged?
They are more spread out but if you compressed the material the particles would move closer together and they would become more dense
What are the three states of matter?
solid, liquid, gas
How are particles arranged in a solid?
Strong forces of attraction holding the particles close together in a fixed, regular arrangement, but the particles don't have much energy so they can only vibrate about their fixed positions. Their density is usually the highest ouf of the states of matter because the particles are closest together
How are the particles arranged in a liquid?
Weaker forces of attraction between the particles. The particles are close together, but they can move past each other and form irregular arrangements and as they have more energy than the particles in a solid they move in random directions at low speeds. Liquids are generally less dense than solids.
How are the particles arranged in a gas?
There are almost no forces of attraction between the particles and their particles have more energy than in liquids and solids and they're free to move and travel in random directions at high speeds. Gases are generally less dense than liquids.
What does dense mean?
How heavy a substance is
How can you measure the density of a solid object?
1) use a balance to measure its mass
2) it it's a regular solid start by measuring it's length, width and height with a ruler then calculate its volume using the relevant formula for that shape
3) for an irregular solid you can find it's volume by submerging it in an eureka can filled with water.
4) plug the object's mass and volume into the density equation to find its density
How does an eureka can work?
1) submerge the irregular solid in a eureka can filled with water
2) the water displaced by the object will be transferred to a measuring cylinder
3) record the volume of water in the measuring cylinder which is the volume of the object
How can you measure the density of a liquid?
1) place a measuring cylinder on a balance and zero the balance
2) pour 10 ml of the liquid into the measuring cylinder and record the liquid's mass
3) pour another 10 ml into the measuring of cylinder, repeating the process until the cylinder is full and recording the total volume and mass each time
4) for each measurement use the formula to find density (1 ml = 1 cm^3)
5) take an average of your calculated densities to give you a value for the density of the liquid
What is internal energy?
The energy stored by the particles that make up a system
What do particles in a system do?
Vibrate or move around as they have energy in their kinetic energy stores and energy in their potential energy stored due to their positions
How is the energy stored in a system?
by its particles. the internal energy of a system is the total energy that its particles have in their kinetic and potential energy stores
What is the internal energy of a system?
the total energy that its particles have in their kinetic and potential energy stores
What happens to the particles if you heat a system?
Energy is transferred to its particles increasing the internal energy
What is the effect of an increase in internal energy?
A change in temperature or a change in state occurs
If the temperature changes what three things does the size of change depend on?
the mass of the substance, what it's made of, the energy input
How does a change in state occur?
If the substance is heated enough the particle will have enough energy in their kinetic energy stores to break the bonds holding them together
LOOK BACK ON NOTES ON SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
LOOK BACK ON NOTES ON SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY
What does a change of state conserve?
What are the changes if state?
- Solid to gas is sublimation
- gas to liquid to condensation
- liquid to solid is freezing
- solid to liquid is melting
- liquid to gas is evaporating or boiling
Is a change of state a physical or chemical change? Effect?
physical which means you don't end up with a new substance, it's just in a different form
What happens if you reverse a change of state?
The substance will return to its original form and get back its original properties
What happens to the number of particles when a substance changes state?
Nothing, there is the same number of particles they're just arranged differently meaning mass is conserved
What does a change of state require?
What is internal energy used for?
Breaking intermolecular bonds rather than raising the temperature
What did a heating graph look like?
/- / - /- (Goes diagonally up then flattens then goes up again etc.)
Why are there flattened parts on a heating graph?
Because this is here energy is being transferred by heating but not being used to change the temperature
What does a cooling graph look like?
\_\_\_ (Goes diagonally downwards then flattens then goes down again'
What do the flattened parts of the graph show?
The energy transfer when a substance condenses or freezes, the bonds are forming between particles which released energy meaning the internal energy decreases but the temperature doesn't go down until all the substance has tuned to liquid or solid
What is latent heat?
The energy needed to change the state of a substance
What is specific latent heat?
The energy needed to change the state of a 1 kg mass without changing its temperature
What is specific latent heat for cooling?
the energy released by a change in state
What is the specific latent heat different between?
Different materials and changing between different states
What is the specific latent heat called between a solid and liquid?
Specific latent heat of fusion
What is the specific latent heat called between a liquid and a gas?
Specific latent heat or vaporisation
Equation to show specific latent heat.
Energy (E) = Mass (m) x specific latent heat (L)
E = m x L
What is specific latent heat measured in?
Joules per kilogram (J/kg)
What does the particle model explain?
How temperature, pressure, volume and energy in kinetic stores are all related
What is the average energy in kinetic stores related to?
What are the particles in a gas constantly doing?
Moving with random directions and speeds
What happens if you increase the temperature of a gas?
you transfer energy into the kinetic energy stores of its particles
What is the temperature of a gas related to?
The average energy in the kinetic energy stores of the particles in the gas
The higher the temperature...?
The higher the average energy
What happens to the particles speed if you increase the temperature of a gas?
How can gases create pressure?
By gas particles colliding
What happens when gas particles collide?
They exert a force and pressure.
What is the outward gas pressure in a sealed container?
the total force exerted by all of the particles in the gas on a unit area of the container walls
what do faster particles and more frequent collisions lead to?
an increase in net force, and so gas pressure. increasing the temperature will increase the speed, and so the pressure, if volume is kept constant
What happens if the temperature is constant and the volume of a gas is increased?
The particles get more spread out and hit the walls of the container less often and the gas pressure decreases
What are inversely proportional to each other?
Pressure and volume - when volume goes up, pressure goes down
Equation for a gas of fixed mass at a constant temperature.
pV = constant
What does p stand for?
What is pressure measured in?
What can a change in pressure cause?
change in volume
What does the pressure of a gas cause?
a net outwards force at right angles to the surface of its container
What is also on the outside of a container? Why?
A force due to the pressure of the gas around it
What will happen to a container which can easily change its size if pressure changes?
The container will compress or expand due to the overall force
Example of the effect of pressure.
If a helium balloon is released it rises. Atmospheric pressure decreases with height so the pressure outside the balloon decreases. This cause the balloon to expand until the pressure inside drops to the same as the atmospheric pressure
How does work done effect a gas?
It's temperature can increase
How is work done?
If energy is transferred by applying a force
What does doing work on a gas do?
it increases its internal energy, which can increase its temperature
Example of doing work on a gas.
Mechanically with a bike pump. The gas applies pressure to the plunger of the pump and so exerts a force on it. Work has to be done agains thus force to push down the plunger
How does work done increase temperature from the example before?
This transfers energy to the kinetic energy stores of the gas particles which increased the temperature. If the pump is connected to a tyre you should feel it getting warmer
What is Boyle's Law?
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas. P varies inversely with V. P1V1 = P2V2.
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