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Terms in this set (15)
What does DNA stand for?
What are the 4 nitrogen bases?
Adenine/Thymine, Guanine/ Cytosine
Why is DNA used in forensics?
- DNA is unique to each person (Inclusive/ Exclusive)
- Each person's DNA is the same in every cell
- An individuals DNA profile remains the same throughout their life
- Proves familial links
- Statistics available (court reporting)
Outline and Evaluate how current DNA Profiling carried out?
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
1. Denaturation: in which double stranded DNA templates are heated to separate the strands
2. Annealing: in which shore DNA molecules called primer bind to flaking regions of the target DNA
3. Extetion: in which DNA polymerase extends the 3' end of each primer along the template strands
4. This is repeated 25-35 times to produce sufficient, exact copies of DNA
+Reduction in analysis time
+Accessible for crime scene staples (hair, blood, fingerprints, fingernail scrapings)
What are the two primary forms of DNA Polymorphism and what DNA do they utilize?
1. Sequence Polymorphism - Mitochondrial DNA
2. Length Polymorphism - Nuclear DNA
Describe and evaluate Length Polymorphism
Used as a form of genetic testing to observe whether an individual carries a mutant gene for a disease that runs in his or her family.
+ compatible with degraded DNA and small amounts of material
+ aid Mixture interpretation
+ high power of discrimination
+ easy to use kit format
+ core STR loci provides compatibility for national (and international) sharing of profiles
State 5 of the applications of DNA testing?
· Crime solving - matching suspect with evidence...
· Accident victims - after airplane crashes...
· Soldiers in war - who is the "unknown" soldier...
· Paternity testing - who is the father...
· Immigration testing - are two people related...
· Missing persons investigation
· Mass disaster and Mass graves - Identification and Put piece together
Outline another form of DNA analysis
- Degraded samples - skeleton bone, hair shaft
- Mass disasters
- Limited to maternal inheritance
- More sensitive to contamination due to higher copy number
What are 2 limitations of current DNA analysis?
1. A DNA profile by itself is fairly useless because it has no context
2. DNA analysis for identity only works by comparison - you need a reference sample
Explain the statistical analysis of a DNA profile and what it means
The analysis is based on population statistics and data.
It shows the probability that the evidence matches the suspect
What are the 2 "future developments" in DNA analysis? (Give a short explanation of how they work)
Rapid DNA: A fully automated DNA profiling system allowing real time DNA database searches
Illimina's MiSeq FGx Platform: within a single assay we will be able to interrogate:
- 27 Autosomal STRs
- 7 X-Chormosomes
-94 Identity SNPs
22 Phenotypic SNPs
56 Biogeographical ancestry SNPs
What is the NDNAD?
The National DNA Database
Who is the custodian of the NDNAD?
The National Policing Improvement Agency
Who has access to the NDNAD?
- Selected NDNAD delivery Unit Employees
- Selected Forensic Science Provider Employees
Who is entered into the NDNAD?
Anyone convicted or arrested for an offence
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