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Issues and Debates: Cultural Bias in Psychology.
Terms in this set (15)
Judging others by the standards of one's own culture. At its highest, it is the belief that one's own culture is superior which may lead to prejudice and discrimination towards other cultures.
How is ethnocentrism reflected in psychological research?
In psychological research, ethnocentrism may manifest as the belief that any behaviour that does not conform to the 'ideal' model (western model) is somehow deficient, unsophisticated or under developed.
How does Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation reflect ehnocentrism?
Mary Ainsworth's (1970) Strange Situation she identified the 'ideal' or secure attachment, which was characterised by the infant showing moderate stress when left alone by the mother figure. This led to a misinterpretation of child rearing practices that seemed to 'deviate' from the 'ideal' attachment based on American values.
How did German mothers rearing practice 'deviate' (which is an example of the ethnocentrism and imposed etic in Ainsworth's strange situation).
German mothers are more cold and rejecting to their infants independence rather than encouraging independence in their children (like Ainsworth states). This shows how the Strange Situation was an inappropriate measure of attachment for non US children.
What is cultural bias in psychology?
It is the tendency to ignore cultural differences and interpret phenomena through the 'lens' of one's own culture.
How many psychologists were American in 1992?
64% of the worlds 56,000 psychologists were American.
According to Baron and Brysons 1991 psychology textbook, what percentage of studies were conducted by white American males and where is the studies based?
Studies in north America revealed that 94% of them were conducted by white Americans.
Describe universality and bias.
Critics argue that mainstream psychology has ignored cultural differences in psychology which may lead to the misinterpretation of behaviour that deviates from Western culture. Psychologists tend to think that Western findings can be applied universally.
Give an example of two male psychologists that are subjected to cultural bias and universality.
Ash (conformity) and Milgram's (obedience) studies reflect cultural bias as they only included US male participants and assumed the findings would apply universally.
Which psychologist's replicated Milgram's obedience study, which reflects the ethnocentrism in the original as well as gender and cultural bias?
Kilham and Mann (1974) study of Australian males and females reflect the differences in findings which ultimately reveals the imposed etic and bias of Milgram's original findings.
Define cultural relativism.
The idea that norms and values as well as ethics can only be meaningful within particular social and cultural contexts. It refers to not judging a culture based on one's own belief-systems.
Describe what etic is.
Etic is a view of behaviour from outside a given culture which attempts to identify universal behaviours.
Describe what emic is.
Emic is the view from inside or within a given culture and attempts to identify behaviours specific to that culture.
What is Berry's (1969) idea of imposed etic?
Berry (1969) idea of imposed etic is based on psychological research that attempts to argue that their concepts, theories, models, research, concepts can be applied universally when they came about through emic research of a single culture.
How is Ainsworth's strange situation an example of imposed etic?
Ainsworth assumed that the US-based model of attachment can be applied universally, she essentially believed her research was the 'norm' and any behaviour that deviated was not. Therefore, imposed her own cultural understanding univerally.
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