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Terms in this set (27)
Wundt opened a lab in -------, during the -- century.
Wundt opened a lab in (Leipzig) Germany, during the 19th Century.
The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations.
Isolating the structure of consciousness via the method introspection.
All introspections were recorded under ---------- ----------, using the same -------- every time which was a ---------. The same ------------ ------------ were issued to all participants, and this allowed procedures to be ----------. Thus, Wundt's work was significant because it marked the separation of modern scientific psychology from its ------------- roots.
All introspections were recorded under controlled conditions, using the same stimulus every time which was a metronome. The same standardised instructions were issued to all participants, and this allowed procedures to be replicated. Thus, Wundt's work was significant because it marked the separation of modern scientific psychology from its philosophical roots.
Explain the emergence of psychology as a science:
By the beginning of the 20th century, John B. Watson criticised introspection for producing data that was too -----------. He was also highly critical of introspection's focus on '-------' mental processes and proposed that a truly scientific psychology should be studying phenomena that can be -------- and --------- only. Thus, the ------------ approach was born and with it the emergence of psychology as a science.
By the beginning of the 20th century, John B. Watson criticised introspection for producing data that was too subjective. He was also highly critical of introspection's focus on 'private' mental processes and proposed that a truly scientific psychology should be studying phenomena that can be observed and measured only. Thus, the behaviourist approach was born and with it the emergence of psychology as a science.
A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning.
Why is it deemed acceptable to study animals to determine how humans behave?
Behaviourists suggested that the basic processes that govern learning are the same in all species.
Learning by association. Occurs when an UCS and a NS are continuously paired together.
Describe Pavlov's Research into Classical Conditioning
A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
The three types of consequences and their definitions.
Positive reinforcement- receiving a reward when a certain behaviour is performed.
Negative reinforcement- when an animal or humans avoids something unpleasant.
Punishment- unpleasant consequence of behaviour.
Describe Skinner's research into operant conditioning.
Evaluate the behaviourist approach as a whole.
From a behaviourist perspective, animals (including humans) are seen as passive responders to the environment, with little or no conscious insight into their behaviour. This brings in the issue of determinism. The behaviourist approach is environmentally deterministic. According to Skinner, our past history conditioning determines the outcome of our behaviour thus suggesting that humans have no free will. Other approaches in psychology (e.g. Social Learning Theory and the Cognitive Approach), have emphasised the importance of mental events during learning. This suggests people play a much more active role in their learning and therefore this theory may apply less to humans than to animal behaviour.
Behaviourism was able to bring the language and methods of science in Psychology by focusing on the measurement of observable behaviour within highly controlled lab settings. By emphasising the importance of scientific processes such as objectivity and replication, behaviourism was influential in the emergence of psychology as a science, thus giving it greater credibility and status.
The principles of conditioning have been applied to a broad range of real-world behaviours and problems. For example, operant conditioning is the basis of token economy that have been successfully used in institutions and psychiatric wards. It encourages good behaviour by rewarding people with tokens which they can collect and then use to buy rewards. Treatments such as these have the advantage of being able to help most people, especially those who lack insight therefore it is successful in real-life applications.
Social Learning Theory
A way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining learning theory with the role of cognitive factors.
Reinforcement that is not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour. (Key factor in imitation).
The four mediational processes involved in learning (identified by Bandura) are:
Attention- the extent to which we notice certain behaviours.
Retention- how well the behaviour is remembered.
Reproduction- the ability of the observer to perform the behaviour.
Motivation- the will to perform the behaviour (usually based on the reinforcement the person they observed had been given).
Copying the behaviour of others.
Imitating the behaviour of a role model.
Bobo Doll Experiment (Bandura)
- Children observed an adult act aggressively or non-aggressively towards bobo doll.
- Imitated adult model's behaviour
- More likely to copy behaviour if adult model was same gender as child
- Boys were more likely to imitate physical aggression than girls who did more verbal imitation unless incentives were provided for imitation.
Evaluation of Social Learning Theory as a whole.
Many of Bandura's experiments were done on children in a lab. Lab studies are often criticised for their contrived nature where participants may respond to demand characteristics. It has been suggested that because a Bobo doll was used, children may have been hitting it because that is what it is intended for (rather than what they had observed an adult do). Thus, the research actually tells us little about how a child learns aggression in everyday life.
The influence of biological factors is negated. Boys were more likely to imitate physical aggression more than girls suggesting that hormonal factors (e.g. testosterone) play an influence on aggression. This means that an important influence of behaviour is not accounted for in SLT.
Bandura emphasised reciprocal determinism, in the sense that we are not merely influenced by our external environment, but we also exert an influence upon it, through the behaviours we choose to perform. This element of choice suggests there is some free will in the way we behave.
An approach that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetic inheritance and neural function.
Make up the chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism and psychological features. Genes are inherited.
The particular set of genes that a person possesses.
The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment.
The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations.
Behavioural geneticists study whether ----------- characteristics are inherited in the same way as -------- characteristics. ---- studies are used to determine the likelihood that certain traits have a genetic basis by comparing the ----------- ----- between the pairs of twins.
Behavioural geneticists study whether behavioural categories are inherited in the same way as physical characteristics. Twin studies are used to determine the likelihood that certain traits have a genetic basis by comparing the concordance rates between the pairs of twins.
Evaluations of biological approach.
+Makes use of a range of precise and highly scientific methods- includes scanning techniques such as fMRIs, EEGs, family studies, twin studies and drug trials. Accurately measures biological and neural processes- based on reliable data.
+Real-life application- led to the development of psychoactive drugs that treat mental illnesses such as depression. Strength since sufferers are able to manage their condition and live a relatively normal life (good quality of life).
-The biological approach is deterministic as it sees behaviour as governed by internal biological causes over which we have no control. Implications for the legal system since the rules of law is that offenders are seen as legally and morally responsible for their actions. The discovery of a 'criminal gene' could complicate this principle.
-Confounding variables of twin studies since they are exposed to the same environmental conditions. This means findings can just as easily be interpreted as supporting nurture rather than nature.
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