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AQA A-level Psychology ~ forensic psychology
A01 for forensics
Terms in this set (50)
What are the three aims of offender profiling?
identification, apprehension and conviction
What is the typological approach (top down) to offender profiling?
Offenders can be identified by making a detailed analysis of crime scenes to make inferences about the personality and behavioural traits of the offender/
What are the two categories that the top down approach divide offenders into?
organised and disorganised
How were the offender types outlined in the top down approach identified?
They were based on interviews and case details of 36 sexually motivated serial murderers, including Ted Bundy.
What are some characteristics of disorganised offenders?
- live alone and near to crime scene
- sexually and socially inadequate
- severe mental illness
- has suffered abuse (physical and/or sexual)
- frightened and confused at the time of offending
What are crime scene characteristics of disorganised offenders?
- shows no evidence of planning
- leaves evidence at the crime scene e.g. weapon
- victim is often random/selected by chance
- attack is quick and brutal
- body found in place murdered
What are some characteristics of organised offenders?
- higher than average IQ
- sexually and socially competent
- lives with a partner or married - often with children
- anger and depression at the time of crime
What are crime scene characteristics of organised offenders?
- little evidence of crime left
- victim usually targeted/ individual is deliberately selected
- crime carried out methodically and shows control and planning
What are the stages of the FBI approach?
1. data assimilation - collecting data, photos, pathology reports etc...
2. crime scene classification - does scene fit organised or disorganised offender type
3. crime reconstruction - hypothesis about what happened, sequence of events and victims behaviour
4. profile generation.
Who conducted a study into the effectiveness of the top-down approach to offender profiling?
Cantar et al
What was Cantar's study into the efficacy of the top-down approach and what were the results?
He conducted a small space meta-analysis of 100 serial murders and found there was evidence to support the existence of organised offenders as many shared the characteristics typical of most serial killers. However, he did not find enough evidence to support the disorganised offender type.
What offender type did Douglas add in 1992 and why?
He added the mixed offenders type as some offenders could not be categorised into either organised or disorganised.
What is Lombroso's atavist theory?
The theory that criminals can be identified through physiognomy.
What did Lombroso suggest about criminals and evolution?
Lombroso believed that criminals are less evolved than other homo sapiens so display more anti-social behaviours. He classed them as homo-delinquents.
What physical characteristics did Lombroso suggest homodelinquents had?
a sloping brow, large ears, extra nipples and a prominent jaw, showing their primitive nature.
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
Sets with similar terms
AQA Psychology: Forensics
Psychology of Crime
AQA a level psychology (forensic)
Psychology Alevel Forensic Psychology
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