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3.3 Sport in Britain after the Second World War (1950 to present)
Terms in this set (17)
Development of modern-day Association Football (Part 1 - 20th Century)
- As twentieth century progressed, attendance and gate receipts soaring. However, wages of players did not reflect this increased income until second half of the century
- In 1900, the maximum wage was set at £4 a week and it was very slow to increase. It did not increase until Professional Footballers' Association chairman Jimmy Hill successfully fought for the abolition of the maximum wage in 1961.
Development of modern-day Association Football (Part 2 - 21st Century)
- Football has undergone a massive increase in commercialisation linked to far more media coverage via TV & Internet.
- Top players (e.g. Messi/Ronaldo) are known across the world with pop star/role model status.
- Their salary scales have increased massively, with the BOSMAN RULING giving 'freedom of contract' to players and huge transfer fees being paid particularly to a player who is 'out of contract'.
- A European Court of Justice decision made on 15th December 1995 concerning freedom of movement for workers.
- It allowed the free movement of labour in the European Union, effectively allowing footballers within the EU to move at the end of their contract to another club without a transfer fee being paid.
Emergence of elite female footballers in modern-day sports (late 1900s)
- 1966: England's successful hosting of the World Cup led to a resurgence of interest in women's football
- 1969: Women's Football Association (WFA) was formed to promote the women's game at a national level, including development of league structures
- 1972: WFA launched an official England national team
- 1991: WFA sets up Women's Premier League
Emergence of elite female footballers in modern-day sports (early 21st century)
- 2001/2: Premier League club 'Newport Ladies FC' was the first to broadcast its match highlights via OnDemand TV
- 2004: The BBC broadcast the Women's FA Cup Final to an audience of more than 2 million
- 2008/12: FA published a plan for a 4-year strategy for women's football; the Women's Super League (WSL) was launched in 2011.
- 2012: A Team GB women's team participated for the first time at the Olympics in London 2012, creating considerable momentum to harness and move the women's game forward.
- 2013/18: The FA published a plan called 'Game Changer', which included a plan for the development of the women's national teams. It also included an increased media focus to promote the game via live coverage of the WSL on BT Sport and internationals on the BBC.
Socio-cultural factors positively influencing women's participation in association football
- Equal opportunities: more sports generally available to and socially acceptable for women. The 'Sex Discrimination Act' led to less gender discrimination in sport. The war effort broke down myths/stereotypes about their physical capabilities.
- Increased media coverage: BT sport provides live coverage of WSL; this has generated more sponsorships via partners (e.g. Nike, Vauxhall)
- More provision: via school PE programmes & National Curriculum PE lessons as well as via extra-curricular opportunities.
- Increased approval/encouragement of resource investment: via the FA (Women's FA Cup Final held at Wembley for the first time in 2015)
- More clubs; are forming at local/professional levels.
- Increased participation: via more funding at grassroots & elite levels
- More free time: as the traditional responsibility role has decreased
Socio-cultural factors positively influencing women's participation in association football - examples
- UEFA has set up competitions such as: Women's EURO & UEFA Champions League, which have gained in media exposure.
- In England, women's football enjoyed a post-World Cup boom following the success of the team finishing third overall in Canada.
- 2015 World Cup itself was expanded to 24 teams and all England matches were televised by the BBC.
- WSL provided women with more opportunities to play professionally and they can earn up to £50,000 a year.
Positive factors affecting the emergence of elite female officials in football
- FA approval/active involvement in women's football: in a variety of roles, including officiating (e.g. via FA development & recruitment programmes which have targeted female referees and the creation of the 'Women's Referee Development Pathway)
- FA National Referee Strategy (NRS): included new frameworks & structures in 2016/17; county FAs were set targets on female referee recruitment & retention
- use of positive role models/mentors: to encourage women to become football referees through to the highest level (e.g. first female ever to officiate in the Premier League, both as an assistent referee, was Wendy Toms)
- FA Respect Campaign: aiming to improve player conduct and behaviour towards all referees, including women, to try to increase recruitment and retention
- general increase in equality in society and recognition of women's ability to officiate football matches at the highest levels of the game; legal support/legislation in place against sexism.
Negative factors affecting the emergence of elite female officials in football
- physical/psychological intimidation; hostile attitudes from male players swearing & physically threatening referees
- lack of adherence to FA Respect protocol
- personal factors: allegations of sexism & marginalisation in the predominantly 'male world' of football
- organisational factors: in reality means there is a lack of support/training/feedback on performance within the system for female refs
- lack of female role models: at the elite levels of football refereeing
Development of modern-day lawn tennis - Amateur to Pro
- Four majors: Wimbledon, US Open, Roland Garros, Australian Open developed in early 1900s. Players soon realised they could earn considerable amount of money from their tennis skills, and professional tours & tournaments were established as early as the 1920s to enable them to do so.
- However, the rest of tennis remained strictly amateur, with professionals remaining excluded. It was not until 1968 that commercial pressures/rumours of some amateurs taking money illegally led to the abandoment of the distinction between amateur & professional, inaugurating the 'Open Era'.
When professional tennis players were allowed to compete alongside amateurs and earn money
Development of modern-day lawn tennis - Open Era
- The establishment of an international professional tennis circuit & revenues for the sale of TV rights, the popularity of the game has spread worldwide and the sport has tried to shed its English middle-class image
- However, it is still percieved that way - may be because it developed later than other sports, or may be due to the fact that joining a tennis club has always appeared difficult or off-putting, with the requirement to stick to a strict dress-code.
Emergence of elite female tennis players in modern-day sport
- As part of the battle fighting the pay differentials in tennis tournaments (e.g. Wimbledon), a number of women decided to create their own tour away from the men's.
- The WTA therefore developed its own professional circuit in the late 20th century, providing ground-breaking opportunities for women to play at the top level, eventually earning millions of pounds through tournament earnings and sponsorship deals.
- Billie Jean King became the first female athlete to earn £100,000 in a single year, with Chris Evert generating over £1,000,000 in career earning by the mid-1970s.
- The WTA stated that in 2015, more than 2,500 elite players competed for $129 million in prize money at the 55 WTA events and 4 Grand Slams available.
- Lots of potential role models for girls, as well as large sponsorship deals, via worldwide media coverage of women's elite tennis tournaments.
Development of modern-day track and field athletics - Amateur
- Interest in athletics was stimulated when the Olympics took place in London in 1948.
- 'Trust funds' were eventually established, which enabled athletes to safeguard their eligibility to take part in amateur competitions (championships & grand prix) but still allowed them to received financial rewards as an athlete. Payments from the fund day-to-day living expenses were allowed and the balance became available to the athlete on retirement.
- Today, there are no trust funds as payments can be made directly to athletes and/or their agents within rules which were laid down by the International Amateur Athletics Association (IAAA).
Development of modern-day track and field athletics - Professional
- Now the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) established and organised a number of major international athletics competitions for male & female athletes, where they could earn considerable amounts of money.
- Large spectator numbers, both live and via global media coverage, ensure athletes can generate healthy incomes via prize money & sponsorship deals with large multi-nationals (e.g. Nike & Adidas)
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