Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
3) Lower gastrointestinal tract
Terms in this set (35)
what are the parameters of the lower gastrointestinal tract?
from the jejunum and ileum of the small intestine to the large intestine and anus
why is folate important?
Helps for growth, and prevents Neural Tube Defects
Helps make healthy red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body.
If we do not have enough folic acid, the body can make abnormally large red blood cells that do not work properly. This causes folate deficiency anaemia, which can cause tiredness and other symptoms.
what cells produce intrinsic factors that permits vitamin B12 absorption?
gastric parietal cells
what takes place in the colon?
absorption of water and electrolytes
the symptoms of lower GI enterology includes bleeding:
1) __________- which is passing bright red blood in stool as fresh blood mixes with stool. while, malaena is upper GI bleeding and is dark red. upper GI bleeding also involves haematemesis, which is blood in the vomit.
2) __________- blood mixed with stool but cannot be seen with the naked eye
the lower GI investigations include:
1) a barium meal with follow through to visualise the small intestine
2) ____________- a tube inserted into the rectum, permiting imaging of colon
3) endoscopy is for the visualisation of small intestines only , while _________ ends at the upper 2/3 of the colon, examining the lower third of the colon. instead, __________ can be used to examine the entire colon.
what is coeliac disease?
An autoimmune condition in which when the patient eats gluten, an inflammatory response is initiated that wipes out villi (knows as villous atrophy), damaging the mucosal surface.
how is coeliac disease discovered in infants?
when they fail to thrive, become anaemic and have diarrhea.
the cause of coeliac disease is not fully understood, but there are predisposing factors. what are these predisposing factors?
genetic, autoimmune thyroid gland disease, and type 1 diabetes
the symptoms of coeliac disease includes malaise (a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or unease whose exact cause is difficult to identify) , diarrhea, steatorrhea, weight loss, malabsorption (therefore: iron, folate, b12, calcium, vitamin D, protein deficiency).
what can calcium and vitamin D deficiency lead to?
osteopenia and osteoporosis as bones become weak by having a lower bone mineral density.
osteopenia is the stage before osteoporosis
it is important to monitor coeliac disease because there may be duodenal malignancy, an increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma, autoimmune thyroid gland disease, and autoimmune liver disease.
how is coeliac disease monitored?
blood tests to check serology for disease activity and ongoing malabsorption
how is coeliac disease diagnosed?
a serology blood sample is deduced to detect antibodies against transglutaminase (IgA tTGA). this tTGA antibody is seen in 98% of coeliac patients who are eating gluten.
if presence is positive, look at endoscopy and biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.
coeliac disease activates inflammatory responses to occur when gluten is present. what are these inflammatory responses?
1) villous atrophy- villi erodes away, leaving a flat surface, reducing surface area for absorption.
2) crypt hyperplasia- grooves are elongated compared to a normal intestinal lining which has short crypts
3) increase in number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes
4) severe and persistent ulcers and dental enamel defects
to manage coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet must be followed, as well as an assessment of osteoporosis risk, and correction of the deficiencies of Fe, folate, calcium, and vitamin D. what is an autoimmune skin condition that affects 10% of patients with coeliac disease?
coeliac disease causes malabsorption, and malabsorption presents with oral manifestations. what are the oral manifestations?
oral ulceration and enamel hypoplasia (underdevelopment of tissue/organ)
Bisphosphonates bind to the surfaces of the bones and slow down the bone resorping action of the osteoclasts (bone-eroding cells). This allows the osteoblasts (bone-building cells) to work more effectively.
patients with coeliac disease who have osteoperosis may take bisphosphates , increasing the risk of developing what medication related disease following certain dental treatments like surgical dental procedures like extraction or implant? why?
osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ)
bisphosphonates accumulate at sites of high bone turnover, such as in the jaw. This may reduce bone turnover and bone blood supply and lead to death of the bone
The overall effect is a decrease in bone turnover and inhibition of the bone's reparative ability. Injury to the bone in these patients via tooth extraction, dental surgery, or mechanical trauma is thought to initiate bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ).
inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases with unknown causes, with their symptoms following a relapsing and remitting course.
what are the two inflammatory bowel diseases (bowel=colon)?
crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
what is Crohn's disease?
A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract. it affects the entire GI tract, from the mouth to the anus.
the inflammation of ulcerative colitis (UC) is limited to the mucosa, while in Crohn's disease (CD) the inflammation is ________ and can be seen in all layers of the gut.
what type of inflammation does crohn's disease cause?
what are the symptoms of crohn's disease?
diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, bleeding, oral features-stomatitis
what is ulcerative colitis?
ulceration of the colonic mucosa only
what are the symptoms of ulcerative colitis?
bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain but less than crohn's disease, pyostomatitis vegetans
what is the name for a very rare oral disorder characterized by pustules that affect oral mucosa, that is a symptom of ulcerative colitis?
the oral features of inflammatory bowel diseases include lip swelling, oral ulceration, mucosal tags, cobblestone mucosa, angular cheilitis, stag horning around salivary ducts, and full width gingival inflammation.
what medication can you use to manage inflammatory bowel disease?
corticosteroids, immunosupressants, biological therapy with anti TNF alpha, targeting antibodies
Corticosteroids lower the activity of your immune system and limit the inflammation in the digestive tract. They are used as short-term treatments for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis flares because they reduce inflammation quickly, sometimes within a few days to a few months.
why do inflammatory bowel disease symptoms present extraintestinally, including autoimmune arthritis, skin lesions, autoimmune hepatitis, DVT AND PE, ocular inflammation, and bowel cancer?
because crohn's disease causes a transmural inflammation
what are treatments for IBD?
1) surgery- removing the diseased bowel, / colectomy in ulcerative colitis, abscess drainage is present
2) parenteral nutrition- intravenous administration of nutrition
3) antibiotics for abscess
what are the investigations for inflammatory bowel diseases?
-full blood count
-stool sample to rule out infective cause
-colonoscopy and biopsy
what are functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID)?
disorders of how the gastrointestinal tract functions, but without structural or biochemical abnormalities
functional gastrointestinal disorders are symptoms without demonstrable diseases. there are 3 types of functional gastrointestinal disorders. what are these?
irritable bowel syndrome
what is irritable bowel syndrome?
Relapsing abdominal pain with a change in bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation) that improves with defecation
there are 3 types of diverticular disease: diverticulosis where diverticular is present but asymptomatic, diverticular disease where symptoms like abdominal pain are present, and diverticulitis where diverticular is inflamed and infected, with patient feeling unwell, feverish, and presenting with acute lower abdominal pain.
What is diverticular disease?
Outpouchings of mucosa and submucosa (false diverticula) that herniate through the colonic muscle wall; most commonly found in the sigmoid colon.
what diseases must NSAIDs be avoided?
inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome
dental signs and symptoms for lower GI includes the direct involvement of oral and perioral tissues in crohn's disease, as well as symptoms secondary to anemia as a result of malabsorption or blood loss, what are the symptoms caused by this?
apthous like ulceration
burning sensation in mouth
what are all the lower GI disorders learned in this module?
1) coeliac disease
2) inflammatory bowel disease- crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
3) functional gastrointestinal disease- functional dyspepsia, functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome
4) diverticular disease- diverticulosis, diverticular disease, diverticulitis
Sets found in the same folder
1) Upper gastrointestinal tract
2) GIT tooth erosion
4) Physiology and pharmacology of GI tra…
5) Iron and vitamin B12 anemias
Other sets by this creator
3) Impression materials- elastomeric
3) Impression materials- hydrocolloid and impressi…
2) Gypsum products
1) Introduction to dental materials
Other Quizlet sets
Computer Architecture Midterm
Chapter 3 Learning Theories Teaching and Learning
BCH4024 (Module 28)
Speech Unit 3