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PBL Case 7 anatomy
Terms in this set (33)
What is label 1 on the cancellous bone?
What is label 2 on the cancellous bone?
What is label 3 on the cancellous bone?
irregular visceral surface
Which surface is 1?
smooth diaphragmatic surface
Which surface is 2?
What is label 1 on the histological diagram of the spleen?
What is label 2 on the histological diagram of the spleen?
What is label 3 on the histological diagram of the spleen?
What is label 4 on the histological diagram of the spleen?
What is structure 1 on the spleen?
What is structure 2 on the spleen?
What is structure 3 on the spleen?
What is structure 4 on the spleen?
What is structure 5 on the spleen?
What is structure 6 on the spleen?
left and right costal margin, anterior abdominal wall, pleura, xiphoid process, lungs
What are the anterior relations of the liver?
duodenum, fundus of stomach, hepatic flexure, oesophagus, gall bladder, right kidney, inferior vena cava
What are the posterior relations of the liver?
an upper surface which is smooth due to moulding from the diaphragm, and an irregular posteroinferior surface
Describe the two surfaces of the liver?
hepatic arteries, portal veins, autonomic nerves, hepatic ducts, lymphatic vessels
Which structures pass through the porta hepatis?
anterior - stomach
posterior - diaphragm, lungs, pleura, and 9th-11th ribs
inferior - left colic flexure
medial - left kidney
Describe the surroundings of the spleen?
blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
What passes through the hilum of the spleen?
Arterial supply by the splenic artery arising from the coeliac trunk. Venous drainage occurs through the splenic vein. It combines with the superior mesenteric vein to form the hepatic portal vein
Describe the vasculature of the spleen?
Lymph vessels from the spleen drain to pancreaticosplenic nodes and then into the coeliac nodes.
Describe the lymphatics of the spleen?
The spleen receives sympathetic vasomotor fibres from the greater splanchnic nerve via the coeliac plexus - stimulation causes vasoconstriction.
Describe the innervation of the spleen?
surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule, trabeculae project from the capsule into the organ to provide support, large trabeculae extend from the hilum conveying nerves and arteries to the splenic tissue, and veins and lymphatic vessels back to the circulation, reticular fibres extends from the trabeculae into the parenchyma forming a scaffold. the parenchyma is composed of sinusoids and vascular sinuses filled with blood (red pulp), or by aggregations of lymphoid tissue (white pulp)
Describe the microscopic structure of the spleen
granulocytes (contain lysosomes), small and numerous granules give cell a coarse appearance, nuclei have 2+ lobes, highly mobile, active phagocytic cells that can migrate out of blood vessels and enter the tissue spaces (diapedesis),
stain orange, large and numerous granules, nuclei have 2 lobes, weak phagocytes, release chemicals from their granules e.g., cell toxins and immune system regulators -> protection against infections caused by parasitic worms and involvement in regulating allergic reactions such as asthma
least numerous WBC type, have relatively large, but sparse, cytoplasmic granules that stain a dark purple with basic dyes, motile and capable of diapedesis, have S -shaped, but indistinct, nuclei, granules contain histamine (an inflammatory chemical) and heparin (an anticoagulant)
small, large, spherical nuclei surrounded by a very limited amount of pale blue-staining cytoplasm
large, dark, kidney bean-shaped nuclei surrounded by large quantities of distinctive blue-grey cytoplasm, motile and highly phagocytic cells capable of engulfing large bacterial organisms and viral-infected cells, leave the circulation and differentiate into macrophages in the connective tissue, Kupffer cells in the liver, microglia in the central nervous system and osteoclasts in bone
lifespan of 120 days, break apart or fragment in capillaries as they age, macrophage cells in the lining of blood vessels, particularly in the liver & spleen, phagocytose aged, abnormal, or fragmented RBCs, haemoglobin released, globin converted to amino acids and used as an energy source for protein synthesis, haem degraded into iron which can be used to form more haemoglobin in the bone marrow or the pigment bilirubin which is excreted into the small intestine from the liver as bile
Describe the life cycle of a RBC
no nucleus, biconcave discs to reduce spinning and turbulence, don't contain mitochondria, ribosomes and organelles, thin centre and thicker edges for large surface area, flattened shape permits interior haemoglobin to be close to the plasma membrane where gas exchange occurs, flexible due to stretch fibres, ability to change shape from a biconcave shape to a smaller cup-shaped cell size
Describe the structure of RBCs
transport oxygen in haemoglobin and carbon dioxide, contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which catalyses a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid, dissociation of the acid then generates bicarbonate ions (HCO3 −) and hydrogen ions (H+), which diffuse out of the RBCs
Describe the function of RBCs
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