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Topic 4 French Revolution
Terms in this set (66)
what is the name given to the anti-Jacobin backlash that followed the collapse of Jacobin power in July 1794?
where did the white terror tend to occur?
areas where the Jacobin terror had been at it's most extreme
In Paris, the _______________ attacked and intimidated the Jacobins and SC's.
jeunesse dorée (gilded youth)
how did the directory respond to the white terror?
did nothing (effectivley granted a license for the terror)
how many deaths did the white terror cause?
In what year was Jacobin leadership purged - those not killed were persecuted over the following months - included Varenne and d'Herbois (lead coup against R) - exiled and Carrier (responsible for the Loire) was killed.
was the power of the left completley broken after the coup of thermidor?
no (Fouché re-emerged after the Thermidorian reaction but rose again in influence to lead neo-Jacobinism. Paris witnessed an influx of Jacobins from the provinces who wanted to be protected by the anonymity of a large city)
why was there a resurgence of royalism after the coup of thermidor?
royalist allowed back in politics
what was the general ideology of the directory
date that the Thermidorian Convention removes price controls, introduced free trade policies and prints more assignats causing rapid inflation across France
years of bad harvests
Removal of Price goods meant the gov. had to pay market prices for arms and resources for the revolutionary army - to fund they printed more assignats - by May 1795 the assignat had lost _____ of its value.
Farmers would not accept paper currency - caused hunger in towns and cities as urban officials could not use their currency to buy and import food - _____ of Parisians were so poor they relied on food relief from such officials. Their failure to get food caused both anger and starvation
Death rate was _____ in 1794, and ____higher in 1795 than a normal year.
hardships of the winter caused two uprisings - what were they?
when was the rising of germinal ?
what occured at rising of germinal?
peaceful protest, 10,000 marched on the convention demanding bread - arrival of National Guard was enough to disperse the crowd
When was the Rising of Prairial?
20 May 1795
what occured at the rising of prairial ?
more serious threat. Large crowd of SC surrounded the assembly, supported by disloyal National Guard - demanded action on food shortages
how did the convention respond to the rising of prairial ?
agreed to set up food commission to investigate problem, but was no longer willing to be forced into radical change so deployed 20,000 troops from both the NG and regular army
how many arrests were made at the rising of prairial ?
signficance of the rising of prairial ?
Show extent of dissatisfaction and desperation at the economic situation
Reveal how the power of the SC had been broken and the The post - thermidorian government would not be dictated to by insurrection .
Two chambers of legislature - ____ consisted of elected men over age of 30 and was responsible for initiating and drafting new legislation
These would then be passed to the ______; 250 men over age of 40.
COA would either approve or refuse the bills - no right to amend or initiate laws.
____ of all members of the councils had to be retired and replaced each year
The Thermidorian convention feared a royalist resurgence in the first elections of 1795 so decreed ______ of those elected must have served in the convention.
3rd body of gov was the directory itself
Consisted of ____ men chosen by COA from a list drawn up by CO500.
Would hold office for 5 years, though each year ___ directory would be replaced.
In charge of law enforcement and foreign and military affairs, but their power was limited as they couldn't create legislation, no right of veto or control over finance or declaring war or peace.
weaknesses of the constitution - In trying to create a system of checks and balances what it actually created was a system that lacked in _________
Directory held no power so could not fulfill its role
No room for negation or amendment with legislation that the CO500 gave to the COA if they rejected it.
Furthermore with ⅓ of the council members being retired each year and with annual elections there was no ______within the councils.
Finally the decree of 2/3rds caused opposition from both the left and right - neo jacobins had no one to stand as many jacobins had been purged and royalists were limited.
when was the assignat abolished ?
March 1796 - the directory introduced a new paper currency called the ________ - made the mistake of valuing it against the assignat - so as a result the value plummeted.
In Feb 1797 all paper currency was scrapped entirely and replaced with ______
Problem with this was that there was not enough of it in circulation - caused a partial return to a natural economy - e.g deputies of the council were payed in grain.
when did the Directory declare itself bankrupt to tackle problem of state debt
Said it could only pay off debts to creditors by issuing state bonds which could then be used to purchase ______
2/3rds of state debt was wiped out
However the bonds quickly decreased in value, making future borrowing less possible. and the COA accused the directory attacking the right of property of the lenders - they were being robbed of money owed to them, COA thought it was immoral.
Directory inherited a ______________________________________________
Universal land tax was not being effectively collected, and as half the tax was paid in grain and the other half in assignats, the depreciation of the currency meant that state income was falling in line with the depreciation
failing taxation system
(directory finance minister) reintroduced a number of indirect taxes e.g a charge on luxuries like carriages, a poll tax and a tax on windows and doors.
Collection of taxes remained inconsistent and were deeply unpopular - accusations it was a return to the ancien regime
Directory and CO500 pushed for the return of the ______ but the COA used its veto saying it had gone too far.
Ramel Nogarets reforms did see an increase in revenue, and arguably he had no choice but to do this.
However they were unpopular and did not cover the cost of running a country during war - as the 1790's progressed the state became reliant on wealth acquired by its ______
With trouble on Brittany and the Vendée, bread riots and banditry triggered by famine and resentment of government reforms, Directory deemed it necessary to increase policing
For this relied heavily on _________
A law introduced in _________ allowed the army to use military courts to try rebels and opponents of the government.
The army law in 1795 was Initially temporary, but in 1797, they were made permanent - essentially the introduction of ______
The Directory also preferred to use regular soldiers (more loyal) to deal with unrest.
By 1799 over ______ communes had seen policing and judicial powers being handed over to the military.
The Vendémiaire rising
triggers of the vendemiaire rising
Government dependent on army in Paris
Decree of 2/3rds poorly received by extremists
Poor people were still hungry and poor
events of vendemiaire rising
a crowd of 25,000 gathered in Paris to seize power - rebels vastly outnumbered the gov. But had neither the leadership, organisation or weapons of the army
Vendemaire rising - Barras and Napoleon were in charge of defeating and dispersing the rebels - _____ gov troops and _____ rebels were killed
Babeuf Plot - Babeuf was radical left wing ______ who opposed the Directory
Radical thinker with small newspaper - only _____ subscribers
Managed to encourage 3 battalions of the Parisian police to mutiny in _______ - short lived (they were easily suppressed) and led to the downfall of Babeuf
journalist, 500, 1796
How was babeuf dealt with after the babeuf plot
10 May Babeuf and others were arrest and following trial were guillotined.
The coup of Fructidor
some in France who supported restoring absolute monarchy (minority), more who favoured a return to constitutional monarchy
These moderates were led by _____ - an emigré
His faction fought for the relaxation of laws against emigrés and refractory priests, and argued for the conclusion of peace of the revolutionary war
The rule of 2/3rds did not apply in 1796, so they made some advances
In 1797 was when they made significant gains - ____/260 council seats contested were won by royalists - not a majority but enough to scare the directory
To add to this, a member of the Directory (Letourner) was removed by Ballot to be replaced by ___________, a French politician and diplomat - known for his support for royalists
People also questioned Carnot as he became increasingly conservative
Remaining republican directors felt they had to act to stop royalism (leads to coup of fructidor)
d'André, 180, Barthélemy
Coup of Fructidor events - On 4th Sept 1797, they sought help from the army - the soldiers surrounded the councils and arrested Carnot, Barthélemy and ___ royalist deputies
The army excused their actions by accusing the arrested of plotting a royalist coup
Remaining deputies of the council were scared enough to approved a decree sanctioning the _______ of the prisoners to French Guyana (carnot fled)
Councils also approved another decree cancelling the election results (_____ deputies were removed)
Ensured the dominance of the directory over the councils and prevented royalist resurgence
The Directory made a mockery of Democracy and undermined its legitimacy and had had to rely on the military.
53, deportation, 177
Directorial terror - Emigrés who had returned after Coup of Thermidor were given 2 weeks to leave
The clergy were forced to swear an oath of loyalty to the government, and if they didn't they were deported
________ priests were sentenced to the 'dry guillotine' as the long unhealthy journey to Guyana was known
Only a fraction were actually captured and deported though (only _____ went)
Churches were closed, some were sold and some were demolished
This period of terror was short lived and small - short term quelled royalism, but its actions served to increase opposition
Emigrés led by Louis brothers, Comte d'Artois and Comte de Provence
Both gathered emigré armies
They wished to restore Bourbon absolutism
Not a _____ - armies were insubstantial, and governments dismissed them throughout the revolution
States of the First coalition also did not take them seriously - saw their aim as _____
Verona declaration - June ____ the Emigré situation changed.
Child King Louis XVII died in prison.
In response the Comte de Provence declared himself King Louis XVIII and stated his aims to restore the ancien regime system - Verona declaration (24 June 1795)
Was not _______
Allowed opponents of royalism to accuse it of advocating a return to despotism
1795, taken seriously
The Chouannerie and the invasion of Quiberon Bay -
Greatest direct Emigré threat was inspired by an uprising in ______
Rebellion against Turreau had begun in 1794, led by Chouan (uprsing name Chouannerie)
By the Spring of 1796 the Chouans controlled most of the area
Rebel leaders sought British and emigré support against the republic
In response an army of _______ emigrés and british troops landed at quiberon bay in June _____ to support the Chouan army
Brittany, 3000, 1795
Response by directory to invasion of quiberon bay -
Hoche (republican general) had been warned and so met their arrival with a large force of soldiers who outnumbered the emigrés ____
______ prisoners taken
Government then came down even harder on the Chouannerie and provided Hoche with an army of ________ to suppress the uprising
By the end of summer 1796 the Chouannerie was defeated
Disastrous invasion of Quiberon bay demonstrates poor preparation of the emigrés.
8-1, 6000, 140,000
Re-emergence of unrest in the Vendée - Early success of Chouan movement triggered unrest in the neighbouring region of the vendée
Communities still resented the ___
Position of the peasants had also not improved exacerbated by the bad ______
Peasant gangs attacked the national guard and when they tried to enforce the directories new legislation they got beat up
Comte d'artois sought to capitalize on the unrest by launching another emigré invasion
In Sept 1795 he took a small fleet to capture the island of _____ of the coast of the vendée - was gonna use it for a base
Wanted britain and rebel armies to come and help but neither helped
He was forced to return to Britain in humiliation
CCC, winters, yeu
Impact of War - By 1795 the war of the first coalition was in France's _____
In 1796 the French placed Napoleon in charge of the Italian campaign which was basically to defeat Austria (96-7) due to his connections with Barras.
The campaign was highly successful, establishing Napoleon as a great general
He ignored instructions from the Directory and chose to negotiate personally the terms of Austria's surrender
Formalised in the _________ (Oct 1797) - Directory was furious but couldn't do anything about it
favour, Treaty of Campo Formio
Calls for conflict to end increased
Yet war continued with a French campaign in the Rhineland and the Italian campaign
In 1797 after Campo Formio and the defeat of the first coalition (except Britain) the war really seemed like it could end but Napoleon launched an ______ campaign to threaten British interest
As dissatisfaction with the war grew so did views on the _____
In Sept ______ a law was passed calling for the conscription of all men aged between 20 and 25 for a 5 year term - to apply in both peacetime and wartime and also applied to married men with children
Partly caused a wave of_______ in late 1798 + 9 across many french provinces
In Brittany and Normandy deserters and those avoiding conscription swelled into the ranks of small rebel bands to turn them into new ______
These enlarged armies took control of a number of significant French towns like Le Mans for short periods.
1798, uprisings, Chouan armies
In the SW a royalist conspiracy launched a rebellion that possessed funding from Britain and some Emigrés
Leaders aimed to capture toulouse and the weapons there
An army of _____ advanced on the town but flopped
Directory was successful but civil war did nothing to strengthen its position
Passive opposition in other areas - departments failed spectacularly to meet their levy requirements
War Breeds war: the vicious circle:
The army was paid and supplied out of its own conquests - they couldn't stop the army easily as they couldn't pay them
Little profits from war made it back to Paris - Only____ of indemnities made it back to the directory from Napoleon's campaign . Wealth tended to be spent on funding and maintaining the army
Government had also become reliant on the ____ to maintain its position
The more the directory relief on its generals, the greater their power became
¼ , army
The Coup of Floréal
triggers of coup of floreal - Coup of Fructidor had been sufficient enough to break the power of the royalists
However this meant the Directory had to rely on support of the left
_______ capitalized by launching a political offensive
Attacked the councils and the directory for the reintroduction of indirect taxation and were critical of the directory allowing generals to enrich themselves at war
Directory hit back by suppressing _____ newspapers to shut down propaganda
1798 election did see a shift to Jacobinism - enough to panic the directory - so they instigated rumors that the Jacobins posed a threat to the republic
On 11 May 1798 (22 Floréal) they successfully pushed the CO500 into agreeing to annul parts of the election leading to ___ deputies losing their seats - these were then replaced by people the Directors chose themselves (known as Coup of Floréal)
Demonstrated how ____ the political system was and eroded people's beliefs in the constitution
But to make any changes would take ___ years - people did not have the patience
127, broken, 9
Impact of the War of the Second Coalition -
In 1798 war resumed on the European mainland
Due to the poor military situation the councils enacted emergency measures
In June 1798 ________ law was passed, calling for another levée en masse
Even more controversial was the forced loan placed on the rich
Both factors called widespread resistance
In an attempt to suppress unrest and enforce obedience, the ___________ (July 1799) was introduced allowing arbitrary arrest - echoed the tyranny of the terror
With few willing to enforce it it only added to the anger at the government.
Jourdans, law of Hostages
The role of Abbé Sieyes and the return of Napoleon
Abbé sieyes elected to CO500 in _____ , became a director the following year
Unbeknown to those who appointed him, he wanted to bring the directory _____
Knew to stage a successful coup he would need military help and a general on his side - Napoleon.
In May 1798 Napoleon launched the Egyptian campaign, ended up in failure - Napoleon abandoned his armies and returned to Paris in 1799
His reputation was not damaged though - he was greeted by applauding crowds
Timing of Napoleon's return was fortuitous for Sieyes and his Coup - knew that force would probably be needed and a figure head promoting strong leadership - Napoleon: he accepted.
The Coup of Brumaire
In Novemeber _____ , Sieyes convinced the COA there was a Jacobin plot being formed within the CO500
Convinced the members of the COA to reconvene at Saint Cloud for protection
Napoleons troops then occupied the Tuileries garden outside the chamber of the CO500.
Another general surrounded the Directory, 3 resigned (2 were in on the plot, Sieyes and Ducos), one fled and one was placed under military arrest
Coup nearly failed - Napoleon entered the CO500 with armed guards, prompting an eruption of anger and Napoleon was physically attacked
CO500 then renewed its loyalty to the constitution rather than rejecting it as hoped
Lucien Bonaparte and president of the council saved the Coup - he claimed to the council that during the confusion, some of the deputies had tried to kill Napoleon.
Allowed Lucien to expel ___ deputies
Legislation was then quickly passed through a depleted council, calling for the abolition of the Directory and the establishment of a ___ man executive in its place.
1799, 61, 3
3 Man directory was called the _____ - first three members were Sieyes, Ducos and Napoleon - had more power than the directory
Napoleon determined that he had more power than the other 2
Constitution created a governing body consisting of the 2 chambers - Tribunate and Legislature - that could not initiate new laws
This was left to the senate, who were chosen by the consul (Napoleon)
To add legitimacy, Lucien Bonaparte organised a plebiscite - he claimed _______ voters - greatly falsified
Removal of exaggeration leaves the figure at 1.5 million - implied the French people were calling for change
Likely the French people's acceptance was as much a reflection of dissatisfaction with the Directory as any new embrace of leadership.
Consulship, 3 million,
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