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Terms in this set (26)
Give an example of high expressed emotion
Hostile or threatening language, over involvement, criticism, control
Cognitive distortions focus on what in relation to psychological disorders?
Faulty thinking/distorted mental processing
What is attentional bias?
Focus on 1 threatening stimuli over anything and over-emphasise the threat
How does metarepresentation explain schizophrenia?
A dysfunction in this self-monitoring tool would disrupt the ability to recognise one's own thoughts and actions and attribute them to external forces.
If one parent has schizophrenia, what is the chance of their child developing it?
If both parents have schizophrenia, what is the chance of the child developing it?
Stirling: Stroop Test, how much longer did it take schizophrenics to answer the questions?
Why do most researchers consider the genetic approach to schizophrenia as 'polygenic'?
There is no one candidate gene responsible for schizophrenia, and its cause is due to an interaction of many genes.
High levels/activity of dopamine in the subcortex (central areas of the brain) is associated with what?
Poverty of speech and/or the experience of auditory hallucinations.
Low levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (responsible for thinking and decision making) are though to cause what?
Negative symptoms (avolition and speech poverty)
Enlarged ventricles are especially associated with damage to central brain areas and the pre-frontal cortex. Damage has often been associated with what?
Rates of schizophrenia were how many times higher among genetic than adoptive relatives of schizophrenics?
In schizophrenic patients, the severity of their thought disorder was negatively correlated with the level of activity in which area?
What is wrong with using reductionist explanations?
This simplifies a complex disorder into simple brain function whilst ignoring powerful external factors such as upbringing, family dysfunction, neglect, abuse and other stresses.
What are the implications for treatment with the biological approach?
Drugs can dramatically reduce the symptoms reasonably quickly, meaning the biological explanations have benefitted sufferers in helping them to recover.
How long can family therapy expect to last?
Between 9 months and a year.
After reducing the stress and making communication better in families, what can this lead to for the sufferer?
Better able to cope with every-day stressors, maybe lead them to be more favourable towards medication, reducing symptoms/relapse rates further.
Reducing relapse rates has economic implications, what are they?
By reducing the number of cases of relapse, there is less pressure on the NHS and sufferers may be able to return to work, raising government income via taxes.
Token economies are a form of behaviour modification based on the which principles?
What type of reinforcers are tokens?
What can they be exchanged for?
Primary reinforcers - anything that a sufferer finds pleasure in (food, being allowed on visits etc.)
What are the 3 stages of CBT used to treat schizophrenia?
- Identification and consolidation of skills
Why might CBT not be appropriate for all sufferers?
Some symptoms may be too debilitating for the sufferer to engage with complex therapy - for example, severe speech poverty or avolition, severe paranoia.
Is CBT effective in treating schizophrenia?
Research suggests it has moderate success in treating long-term illness, and may work well as part of a combination therapy.
What is the diathesis-stress explanation of schizophrenia?
An interactionist approach that recognises that patients have a vulnerability to schizophrenia, which is triggered by stress event/s in their lives. Their vulnerability may be a number of things, from genetics to childhood trauma.
What type of therapy has the interactionist approach led to?
Combination therapy (e.g. drugs, CBT and family therapy)
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