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multi-store model of memory
psychology: MSM case studies for LTM, STM and SM
Terms in this set (24)
what are the three features of memory?
coding, capacity and duration
what are the three types of memory stores?
short term memory (STM), sensory memory (SM) and long term memory (LTM)
what are the two memory models?
multi-store model of memory and the working memory. model
who suggested the multi-store model of memory (MSM) and when?
atkinson and shiffrin (1968)
explain the steps multi-store model of memory
1. input into the sensory memory
2. attention paid into the short term memory
3. maintenance rehearsal to keep the information in the STM
4. transfer from the short term memory to the long term memory
5. retrieval from the LTM to the STM
what is the capacity of the sensory memory?
what is the duration of the sensory memory?
visual less than 0.5 seconds
sound between 3 to 4 seconds
A03: what supporting study is there for the duration of echoic memory?
darwen at al (1972):
- researched echoic memory by presenting participants spoken recordings of letter and number lists through headphones
- the lists were presented from left, right and behind
- the participants were given a cue to recall the lists, the length of time between the list being read and recalled varied between 0 and 4 seconds
results: as the length of time increased, recall decreased suggesting the duration of echoic memory was roughly 3 seconds.
sperling (1960) found sensory memory duration vary as iconic are 0.5 secs
evaluation: darwen used a laboratory experiment meaning extraneous variables could be controlled increasing internal validity of results
what is the coding in the sensory memory?
raw / unprocessed, from all 5 senses
- iconic (visual stored as images)
- echoic (auditory input stored as sounds)
what is the capacity of the short term memory?
7 +/- 2 chunks of information
A03: what are two supporting studies for the capacity of the STM?
443 female students had to repeat back a string of numbers or letters in the same order, the number of digits / letters gradually increased until participants could no longer recall the sequence
findings: the average span of 7.3 letters and 9.3 words concluding STM cab hold 7-9 items of information
he completed a literature review of published investigations into STM from 1930s to 1950s
findings: research suggested organising stimulus into chunks enabled STM to cope with 7 chunks of information e.g., when we remember 11 digit phone numbers, we split it into chunks of 3 so we only need to remember 4 bits of information
conclusion: encoding can extend the capacity of STM and enable more information to be stored briefly
evaluation; his research did not take other factors into account e.g., jacobs acknowledged STM gradually improved with age
what is the duration of the short term memory?
18 to 20 seconds
peterson and peterson 18 - 20 seconds
what is the coding in the short term memory?
- Conrad 1964 found words that are acoustically similar are harder to remember
what is the capacity of the long term memory?
what is the duration of the long term memory?
difficult to test but potentially unlimited
A03: what is a supporting study for the duration of the LTM?
392 american uni graduates were shown photos from their high school yearbooks and asked to match the names to the photographs
findings: 90% of participants were able to correctly match the names and faces 14 years after graduation and 60% could 47 years after graduation
conclusion: people could remember certain types of information e.g. names and faces for almost a lifetime
- these results support the MSM and the idea LTM has a lifetime duration and is semantically coded
- lacks population validity as it is just americans so results cannot be generalised to other populations e.g. europe
- he found accuracy of LTM was 90% after 14 years and 60% after 47 years but is unable to explain whether it becomes less accurate over time due to limited duration or if the LTM gets worse with age. this means psychologists cannot determine if LTM has unlimited duration or is affected by other factors e.g. getting old
- the study has high levels of ecological validity as the study used real-life memories meaning it can be applied to everyday human memory
what is the coding in the long term memory?
- information can only be passed into the LTM if it is understood
A03 explain one study to support the MSM
glanzer and cunitz (1966)
- read a list of words to participants and asked them to recall as many as possible
- findings: recall was more accurate from the start and end of the list
- supports the idea of there being a separate SM, LTM and STM
- the graph shape shows the different memory stores
primary effect: the first words heard were recalled as they'd been rehearsed so they could be recalled from LTM
regency effect: the most recent words heard so they could be recalled as they were still in the STM
A03 explain three case studies to support the MSM
- these are patients who have damaged their hippocampus and have memory deficits
- their memory loss is selective again supporting the idea of separate stores for different types of memory
AO3: who was H.M. and why was he significant?
- he suffered from epilepsy frequently blacking out and having multiple seizures
- he had major brain surgery removing his hippocampus causing him to have very little memory forgetting previous events and unable to make new memories
- he supports the MSM as he could recall information 15 mins after he had been told if he had rehearsed it but could not use his LTM indicating the hippocampus is needed for the LTM but not STM showing there are separate memory stores
- however H.M. could remember how to draw a star showing sensory and motor LTM is different
AO3: who was K.F. and why was he significant?
- he suffered amnesia due to a motorbike incident
- he could add new memories to his LTM even though his STM was severely damaged supporting the idea of separate LTM and STM
- he couldn't repeat 2 digits recall displaying his STM was damaged even though he could add memories to his LTM
AO3: who was Clive Wearing and why was he significant?
- he had a brain virus damaging his hippocampus meaning he could no longer create new long term memories
- his STM lasted between 7 and 30 seconds
- he could remember events before his virus however he could not remember anything previously
- he supports the idea of a MSM
A03 what real life evidence supports the MSM
MRI scans show which parts of the brain are being used when certain tasks are being carried out
these finding back up the existence of different stores for different memories using different parts of the brain
- these findings back up existence of different stores for different memories
task: remembering new information
- the hippocampus is active which requires your LTM
task: make a decision
- the prefrontal lobes are active when suing STM
A03: counter argument
are STM and LTM unitary stores
further research on K.F. shows his STM for digits was poor when they were read aloud but was much better when he read them himself suggesting the STM is not a unitary (single) store but has different parts to the STM but different parts within the STM
- this led to the emergence of the WMM
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