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Lombroso was the first person to study crime scientifically, using objective measurements to gather evidence. Previously, crime was seen as moral religious issue; By arguing that offenders were not freely choosing to commit crime, Lombroso helps us to focus on how we might prevent further offending rather than simply punishing offenders; Lombroso based his theory on the facial measurements of hundreds of criminals and the skulls of deceased criminals. He did not compare these results to a control group of non-criminals. Therefore, as he did not have a comparison control group, the findings cannot be viewed as support for his claims. Goring (1913) made a study of the physical features of thousands of English prisoners, and found none of the distinctive facial characteristics noted by Lombroso. Modern research has found no evidence for any of Lombroso's claims; A major issue with this study is that, even if it were found that there was a relationship between facial characteristics and criminality, the theory is descriptive rather than explanatory (facial features don't make you a criminal).; Lombroso's theory also raises some important ethical issues. If we could identify criminals by physical characteristics, would that imply that such people could justifiably be locked away before even committing a crime?; This theory is also extremely deterministic. It assumes that criminality is akin to eye colour; one is born a criminal, and is unable to escape one's destiny.; It does not take into account social or economic factors; By describing criminals as like 'primitive savages', Lombroso equates non-western societies with criminals. This is a form of racism