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Terms in this set (177)
what is a universal value?
a value that applies to everyone and everyone believes in
Which theory said that Education passes on norms and values in order to integrate individuals into society. Education helps to create social order based on cohesion and value consensus, and to strengthen social solidarity.
Durkheim, Functionalist theory.
Whats is Value consensus?
sharing the same norms and values
Who said that School is a bridge between the family and adult roles of society?
Who said Schools pass on a universal value of achievement?
Who said Education selects children into appropriate roles because it meritocratic?
What is Meritocracy (in education)?
equality of opportunity - functionalist
Who said that every society sorts its members into different positions- they think that there are rules as to how education does this- called principles of stratification?
Davis and Moore 1945- functionalist
Who said there has to be a system of unequal rewards (more money or status) to motivate people (as an incentive) to reach the top positions
Davis and Moore 1945 functionalist
The school that believes education is meritocratic.
Which view believes education is meritocratic?
Who argued what concept that states School mirrors the needs of that of the capitalist economy and is constructed upon unequal relations of authority therefore the school teaches pupils to accept social inequality through the hidden curriculum by teaching?
Correspondence principle -Bowles and Gintis 1976 Marxist
What is the Hidden Curriculum?
As well as the formal curriculum of subject content, schools pass on norms and values- obedience and respect for example, that are expected in the workplace. e.g. dressing smart through school uniform, being punctual.
What is a Ideological State Apparatus (ISA)?
Althusser, a neo- Marxist, sees education as part of the ISA- a tool for capitalism that is used to pass on the belief that society is fair- legitimises inequality. It also use ideologies to oppress the w.class.
What did Willis argue in 1977
Willis 1977 says that education doesn't turn out an obedient workforce- some kids form an anti-school subculture, disagrees with Althusser who suggests education does produce docile and obedient workforce.
What is Cultural capital?
Knowledge, language, skills, attitudes- Bourdieu
Marxist- middle class children succeed because of it
Who argues that the hidden curriculum unofficially reinforces gender differences?
Which view argues that the hidden curriculum unofficially reinforces gender differences?
What do Liberal feminists want for the Education system?
want equal access to education for both sexes
What do Radical feminists believe about education?
believe men are a bad influence want female-centred education for girls
What do Marxist feminists want?
want to consider gender inequalities combined with that of class and ethnicity
Which perspective argues that the role of the state should be more like the role of a business- businesses have to compete with one another to attract consumers, this would force schools to better themselves?
Which perspective argued that State schools are run by the state so they don't have to compete for their consumers and that this has caused poor standards?
What is a Self fulfilling prophecy?
This is when the student internalises the label that they've been given as part of their identity and 'acts upon the label.
Who argued that some studies have shown that teachers label students based on ethnic, gender and class stereotypes. E.g. found that black pupils were more likely to be disciplined than their white classmates for the same behaviour and black students felt that their teachers had low expectations of them
Gillborn and Youdell (2000)
What is streaming?
students are sorted into classes according to their ability and stay in these groups for most of their subjects.
What is setting?
students are sorted into classes according to ability but on a subject to subject basis. Usually done at secondary school stage.
What is mixed ability?
highest and lowest achieving students are taught together classes aren't based on ability.
What did Ball argue in 1981?
found that teachers had high expectations for the highest ability classes, more attention and encouragement while lower sets received negative labelling and performed poorly.
Who looked at a group of black girls in year 11 at a comprehensive school, they were high ability but felt that their teachers wee racist so formed a subculture worked alone and succeeded.
Who studied a group of boys who formed an anti-school subculture and found that the 'lads' deliberately disrupted lessons as a way of gaining respect from others within the subculture and also observed that these boys were working class and likely to get a manual job after school?
What did Archer and yamashita (2008) study?
studied a group of year 10 boys in a London comprehensive school that displayed norms and values that were anti school and anti education- style clothes and accent were important in their identity and the image they displayed. In school they viewed studying and reading as soft and if they worked had would me labelled negatively by their peers.
What did Sewell argue (2000)?
Studied afro-Caribbean boys and identified four groups- conformists, innovated, retreatists, rebels
What are Conformists?
Sewell (2000) identified these as pro school and pro education, well motivated to succeed
What are innovators?
Sewell (2000) Pro school but anti-education, felt that the school and the teachers has failed to provide for their needs. Accepted the goals of achieving but rejected the means of doing so.
What are Retreatists?
Sewell (2000) rejected the goals of education and schooling and the means of achieving. Not confrontational, just didn't like school work.
What are Rebels?
Sewell (2000) Disliked and distrusted by the other three groups (reteatists, innovated and conformists). Followed rap culture and felt that school had failed them.
what are Grammar schools?
specialist selective schools for those who pass the 11+ entrance exam to educated the smartest individuals together.
what is a secondary modern?
a school with a non-academic curriculum which led to manual work jobs - mainly attended by working-class pupils. Taught a wide range of subjects.
what percentage of pupils attended a grammar school in 1944?
which act brought the tripartite system?
1944 education act
which group within society were grammar schools criticised for being biased towards?
white middle class pupils as they could afford 11+ tuition.
why was the 11+ criticised?
the measurement of intelligence is subjective and cant be measured through one test.
what did the tripartitie system repoduce?
educational and social inequalties
What are the ideas within the comprehensive system?
1.all pupils in the same area would attend the same school and learn the same things and have the same educational opportunities
2. There would be no selection or different types of school/ education
3. pupils would have more opportunities to gain important qualifications
what year was comprehensive education brought in?
what ways does the new right criticise the tripartite system?
it reproduces class inequalities and misjudges pupils intelligence
what were the main aims of the conservative governments 1979-1997?
1.Raise standards by making schools compete with each other creating an 'education market'
2. Increase parental choice
3. Establish greater government control over what was taught in schools
4. Reduce the influence of Local Education Authorities (LEAs)
5. Introduce more vocational education
what is parentocracy?
making parents consumers and, like in the business sector, market school to entice parents to choose them for their childrens education. Introducing parental power into state education.
what did the 1988 education reform act introduce?
1. introduced a National Curriculum in England and Wales.
2. national assessment primarily through SATs at 7, 11, 14 and 16.
3. Schools could 'opt out' of their LEA and become Grant Maintained Schools
4. Open enrolment
5. Formula funding
what is formula funding?
giving schools the money based on how many pupils they attract (bums on seats) e.g. giving a set amount per pupil. Acts as incentive to schools to improve as increased pupils lead to increased funding= more successful.
what is parental choice?
parents did not have to send their child to the local school and had more choice over where to put their child
what do league tables do to schools image?
by publishing exam results, truancy rates etc, schools can either have a good or bad image and this can attract or repel potential 'customers'
what is selection by mortgage?
parents can move into catchment areas of more successful schools and this causes inequality as middle class wealthy parents can afford to move into better catchment areas where as w.class may be stuck in council estates or may not have funds to move
what is cream skimming?
when schools are oversubscribed they can be selective over which pupils they take, choosing the most able ones over others to get the best cohort leading to a knock on affect of remaining a successful school.
what is parentorcracy seen as ?
what is parentocracy seen as ?
what policies/ ideas did labour introduce between 1997 and 2010?
1. New Labour argued that education is the key to economic success - a modern global market means individuals to continually develop and change their skills.
2. Marketisation was needed to promote diversity and choice.
3. identified the need for all pupils to have good basic skills in numeracy and literacy.
4. However, they were concerned that some groups were failing in education - with negative effects for society, communities and individuals.
overall they wanted to reduce inequality, especially for the w.class.
what conversative policies changed under the labour government?
-Powers to take over failing schools
-Testing (at 7,11, 14 and 16)
-Local Management of Schools
-Student loans rather than grants
what conservative policies changed under the labour government?
-Powers to take over failing schools
-Testing (at 7,11, 14 and 16)
-Local Management of Schools
-Student loans rather than grants
what did Ball argue about ethnocentrism ?
they argued that school has a ethnocentric curriculum which teaches about English history and culture and this can cause ethnic minorities to underachieve.
what is compensatory education?
Special educational programs designed to overcome the educational deficiencies associated with the socioeconomic, cultural, or minority group disadvantages of youth. E.g. In Britain, there is the Education Action Zones and Sure Start programmes.
what are the three types of cultural capital bourdieu argues?
economic, educational, social
what is a criticism of bowles and gintis?
they had no research or evidence to back up their theories, they just assumed this happened in school. Schools may not run in the same way and this is deterministic. Modern workplaces require creativity and flair rather than an always docile workforce.
What did Sewell noitce about black boys fathers
there wasn't a higher proportion of absent fathers, their fathers were less nurturing to their children with more of a tough love approach
How does Sewell think black boys can overcome lower academic success rates.
People having higher expectations for their achievement and more visibility of positive role models from their ethnicity.
What is a key feature of black male culture?
the gang environment is negative about school and being well spoken and doing well is seen as going against the gangs ethos.
what does Arnot think reinforces the gang culture?
what is black boys biggest barrier to success?
black peer pressure
why do asian boys typically do better than black boys at school?
because of pro academic values and positive views towards education.
what does gillborn think causes inequalities in academic success?
what four things are argued that act as a barrier for social success in w.class subcultures (sugarman)?
fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present time orientation
what year and country ws operation head start released in?
usa in 1960s
what tv show was part of headstart?
what does keddie argue that cultural deprivtion theory is?
a myth and a victim blaming response
what did the department of education find in 2012 about the correlation between nfree school meals and gcse grades?
barely a third of pupils who were on free school meals got five or more a*-c grades as GCSE, incluidng english and maths.
what did flaherty argue was a signficant factorin attendance?
money issues in families is a significant factor for non attendance at schools in young children.
in 2009/2010, what percentage of pupils from the most disadvantaged areas went on to higher education?
in 2009/2010, what percentage of pupils from the most advantaged areas went on to higher education?
who conducted a study in oxford about cost of free schooling?
Tanner et al
what did Tanner et al find?
they found the cost of items such as transport, uniforms, books, computers, calculators, sports, music equipment, art supplies etc put a heavy burden on poor families
what did smith and noble argue?
poverty acts as a barrier to learning as pupils cant afford private schooling or tuition.
what year was the EMA abolished and by which government?
2011 by the coalition government
what percentage of oxford pupils come from private schools?
what did robinson argue would be the best way to boost achievement?
by fighting childhood poverty
what is an example of use of questionnaires?
sullivan(2001) survey of 465 pupils in four schools about a range of activities to assess their cultural capital e.g. museum visits etc.
what was education like before 1870's?
-prior to industrial revolution, there was no state schools
-education only provided for the rich in society
-some charities and churches provided for the poor
state spent no money on education as they didn't see the point and didn't see it as their role
what did Ball and Whitty argue?
marketisation reproduces inequality through legue tables and competition which causes segregation between classes
What did the Butler act want?
more equality, education for 5-15 year olds, better teachers and similar material taught, tripartitie system
what did the forster act introduce?
basic udnerstanding for 5-10 years olds, four R's (reading, writing, arithmetic and religion), industrialisation required a more educated workforce
what did parentocracy include?
open enrolment(lea's set student numbers, successful schools could override this), publication of league tables and ofsted reports, business support in schools, creation of specialist schools, formula funding
what are policies a response to?
equal opportunity, selection and choice, control of education, marketisation and privatisation
which governemnt caused standards to fall and ranks to go down?
coalition (conservatives and lib dems)
which government was in control in 2010-2015?
which government is in power now?
which government was in control from 1997-2010?
what are policies defined as?
plans, strategies instructions and reccomendations
what was tony blairs (labour) policy called?
what were the aims of the comprehensive system (1965)?
-aimed to overcome class divide of Tripartite system
- make school more meritocratic and equal
-abolish the 11+ (replace with comprehensive schools)
-no new grammar schools to remain
- all students from one area go to the same school
-create LEA's in every borough ( decision to go comprehensive down to the lea)
what would functionalists say about comprehnesivisation?
increase social solidarity by mixing different classes
what did ford find out about comprehensivisation?
there was little mixing between classes as m.class were in the top streams and w.class were in the bottom streams.
what did Margaret thatcher want to introduce into education?
a market system
what did the education reform act aim to do?
-increase consumer choice and parentocracy
-create a competition between schools to raise standards
-introduce funding formula
allows businesses to support schools
who argued that middle class parents have more economic and cultural capital and so are better able to take advantage of the choice available, e.g by moving house into areas with better schools?
what is the term where parents can move into a better catchment area for better schools?
selection by mortgage
what did labour aim?
-education action zones(extra funding)
-aim higher programmes(encoruaging underrepresented groups into HE)
-ema(money for poor pupils to attend further education e.g. sixth form)
-reduce class sizes
-city academies( a fresh start for underperforming, inner city schools/ money to build and improve/ invest)
-due to being a government for the people and w.class, they wanted to reduce inequality
why did Benn critisise new labour?
there is a contradiction between marketisation and tackling ineqaultiy e.g. gave funding like EMA's but raised uni tuition from 3000 to 9000
why is it argued that the tripartitie system could be a bipartite system?
as there were so few technical colleges
what did the coalition introduce in their agreement?
-free school meals (in years reception, 1 and 2)
-free schools (funded by a state but run by charities or parents who could set one up to diversify the sector and improve areas which had no good schools)
-pupil premium less money available than EMA)
-promote excellence whilst freeing schools from the dead hand of the state
-leave lea control and to convert to academies
closed surestart centres
-cut funding for building schools for the future by 60%
what did Allen argue?
after looking at education systems in the U.S.A and Sweden, she found educational standards and international rankings had dropped
What kind of modern school is a good example of child lead learning?
What did blackstone and mortimer argue?
W/c parents are alienated from the system that isnt designed to fit their needs(as they often work long, regukarky changing shifts so can't be involved in parents evenings etc)
What is material deprivation?
Poverty and lack of material neccesities
Name four factors of material deprivation that may affect achievement
Poor diet and health/ nutrition
The hidden costs of education
Fear of debt
What percentage of failing schools are in deprived areas?
Who argued about cultural capital?
What understsnding do middle class gain through primary socialisation?
What the education system requires for success
What can improve hildrens cultural capital?
Reading to children
Parents may take children to musuems and galleries
Taking children on holiday to experience cultural
Encouraged ti learn instruments(intellectually challenging)
What is economic capital?
What is educational capital?
What is cultural capital?
Middle class knowledge, values and culture
Who examined whether parentak choice has benefitted one class more than the other?
What three types of parents did bourdieu suggest?
Priveleged skill chosers
Disconnected local choosers. Semi skilled choosers
What are priveleged skill chosers?
Parents who shop around by gaining info to make school decision
What are disconnected local chosers?
Lack economic and cultural capitals so send child to closest school or safest to get to
What are semi skilled chosers?
Ambitious w/c parents who rely on other peoples opinions
Which gender out performs the other?
According to the department of education, upon starting schools, what can girls do more than boys?
Score higher in tests
Be able to concentrate for longer
Write their own name and spell it correctly earlier
What subject do girls do especially better on than boys in key stage 1-3
What percentage more likely are girls to get 5 a* to c grades at gcse?
Why has changes in the family affected girls achievement?
Increase in divorce and cohab
Decrease in first marriages.
Increase in lone parents fams
Single mums=role model for girls
Why has girls changing ambitions affected their achievement
Sharpe(1994) found 1970's girls had low aspirations and saw education as unfeminine and their priorities were live, marriage, husbands, children, jobs and careers in that order. In 1990's priorities were now having career and being financially independent.
Francis found in 2001 very few girls saw their role as traditonal female and wanted qualifications.
Factors for girls achievement
Impact of feminism
Changes in the family
Changes in womens employment
Girls changing ambitions
Why has feminism impacted girls achievement?
Challenged gender roles, equal rights for women, raised ambitions, improve self-esteem
What programme wanted to get girls into less female stereotyped subjects?
Why has changes in womens employment improved girls achievement?
Equal pay act(1970)
Proportion of women in employment fro 47% in 1959 to 70% in 2007
Breaking glass ceiling (e. G. Theresa may as prime minister)
Pay gap falling
What introduction helped pupils study a range of subjects?
Wy do role models help girls achieve?
More female teachers and headteachers
Feminisation of education
Desireable female characteristic to habe qualifications
Why has coursework affected achievement
Mitsos and browne-girls do better than boys in coursework as they are organised and mature earlier than boys
Internal factors for girls achievement
Equal opportunity policies
Sexism in learning materials
Selection and league tables
Why has stereotypes in learning materials affected girls achievement?
In textbooks and test questions, girls have been underrepresented
Since the 1980's-many sexist inages are replaced boosting girls perceptions
Why has teacher attention affected girls achievement?
French and french-found that girls and boys had similar attention for academic reasons but boys attention was mainly to be told off so got more overall
Why have league tables and selection affected girls achievement?
Girls are more attractive to schools as they achieve higher. Boys are lower achieving and more badly behaved.
who found that techers dsciplined feminine behaviours in boys and ignored verbal abuse boys gave to girls?
ghaill et al
what creates a patrarchal ideology in shcools?
what is the term for when woman break gender stereotypes in professions where men are usually the heads or dominant figures?
breaking the glass ceiling
who argued boys are encouraged to be tough and girls were taught to be quiet and helpful and were punished if they were rough?
who argued children learn roles from adult expectations and only want to take part in their domain e.g. cooking and cleaning for girls, cars and sport for boys?
browne and rose
who argues boys are often more attrcted to science because of male techers and male examples e.g football in textbooks?
who studied 13000 pupils in single sex schools and found they took less traditional subjects?
what subjects do boys move away from to avoid teasing?
drama and music
why does employment affect subject choice?
employment is highly gendered and this may affect subject choice as certain subjects lead to certain careers
what fraction of men fall into secreterial, clerical, cleaning or personal service sectors?
what fraction of women fall into the secretarial, clerical, cleaning or personal services sectors?
why have programmes such as GIST and WISE developed?
due to policymakers having more an understanding of feminist ideas
what policy established by the education reform act allowed less gendered subjects?
who girls are better at coursework (due to organisation and concentration) and are better at oral exams due to developed language skills?
who argued teachers time with boys is mostly spent disciplining where as girls attention is due to academic topics?
french and french
who studied 1970's and 1990's girls and found their priorities changed from housewife to independent women?
which gender are more sought after by schools due to performance and league table ratings?
what percent more girls gain 5 a*-c at gcse than boys?
in which subject do boys perform slightly better?
what has been created in the media relating to boys underachievement?
a moral panic (ringrose)
what changes in family struture have meant girls achieve better?
-more divorce= girls need to be self sufficient
- lone parent families (independence and freedom)
-smaller families= career comes first, children less of a first aspiration
what is reading seen to be like by boys?
what is the male gaze?
where girls are assesed as sexual objects and are devalued and objectified. Verbal abuse is used. Men may rush to the aid of capable women. They may judge and make them feel uncomfortable
what is there a lack of when trying to explain performance changes?
who said girls are attractive as high achievers to boost league tables
what is the term where we obtain our status and sense of self worth from others?
what kind of identity do girls experience when they are focused on their appearance, bringing them their identity and stauts?
hyper heterosexual feminine identity
who argues w.class girls clash between educational success and feminine identity?
what do w.class prefer?
local and familiar situations and things
what policicy ws introduced by the government to help raise boys reading skills?
the national literacy strategy
who argued education has become feminised?
Sewell (competitiveness and leadership not nurtured, celebrate attentiveness and methodical working)
what percentage of primary teachers are male?
who argued there has been a decrease in traditional jobs, meaning boys suffer a identity crisis and lose faith in getting qualifications leading to a 'real' job?
mitsos and browne
how many childcare apprentices out of 100 are boys?
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