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Paper 1, Section B
Terms in this set (40)
What is the definition of a producer?
Green plants that convert energy into food (sugars) using photosynthesis and nutrients absorbed from the soil using their roots
What is the definition of a primary consumer?
Primary consumers are animals that get energy exclusively from producers. They can also be called herbivores.
What is the definition of a secondary consumer?
Secondary consumers are animals that get energy exclusively from primary consumers. They can also be called carnivores.
What is the definition of an apex predator?
They are the top carnivals. These animals will hunt and eat other carnivores in the ecosystem, as well as herbivores.
What is the definition of a decomposer? And give an example
These organisms work to break down dead organic matter and animal waste, transferring remaining nutrients in the soil in the form of a substance called humus. Detrivores are example of decomposers the feed on faecal matter.
What is the producer and a freshwater pond ecosystem?
Water lily or algae
What is the primary consumers in a freshwater pond ecosystem?
Small fish or insect
What is a secondary consumers in a freshwater pond ecosystem?
What is the apex predator and a freshwater pond ecosystem?
What is the decomposer and a freshwater pond ecosystem?
Give three examples of conditions in tropical rainforests
Temperatures are high and constant throughout the year, regular thunderstorms, high rainfall
Describe what soils are like in tropical rainforests
Very infertile, dead matter decomposes rapidly due to heat, plants have shallow roots to absorb nutrients
What are the four layers of the rainforest?
Emergent layer, canopy, under canopy, shrub layer/forest floor
How are buttress roots adapted to live in tropical rainforest?
They stretch from the ground to two metres or more up the trunk and help anchor the tree to the ground and support the weight of the tree
How are Lianas adapted to live in tropical rainforests?
They are woody vines which stretch up a treat to the canopy searching for sunlight
How are Lar Gibbon adapted to live in tropical rainforests?
They live in the canopy layer and have elongated hands and long arms to help and swing quickly and their ball and socket joints of the upper arm don't strain
Where is Malaysia located?
In south-east Asia. It is made up of peninsular Malaysia which is located in the south of Thailand and East Malaysia which is north of Borneo. The sea that borders Malaysia is the South China Sea
What is logging?
Malaysia was the largest exporter of tropical wood in the 1980s. Clear felling has now been replaced with selective logging where only fully grown trees are cut down.
What is subsistence farming?
Slash And burn creates valuable nutrients that help plants grow but it can get out of control and destroy big areas of land
How is soil erosion bad for the environment?
Less trees means less roots to bind the soil together and so the soil becomes loose and begins to erode due to water and wind
How is loss of biodiversity bad for the environment?
We could lose species that have medicinal qualities such as vampire bat saliva
What are two examples of economic gains due to deforestation?
1) development of land for farming which leads to jobs
2) taxes paid by companies can lead to investment in services such as education
What are two examples of economic losses due to deforestation?
1) tourism decreases
2) plants with potential medicinal qualities may be lost
What is debt reduction?
Countries convert debt into a fund to protect large areas of tropical rainforest
What is eco-tourism?
Nature tourism using small groups with minimal impact on the environment
Give three examples of conditions in hot deserts
High diurnal temperatures, little rainfall and little cloud cover
Describe what soils are like in hot deserts
Limited due to lack of water and vegetation, can be very fertile because nutrients such as calcium don't get leached away and soils can be irrigated to become highly productive for farming
How are cacti adapted to survive in hot deserts?
They store water in their tissues and are covered in sharp spines to stop consumers eating them
How are Acacia trees adapted to survive in hot deserts?
they have short, fat trunks to act as reservoirs to store water and are drought tolerant trees
How is the Dromedary camel adapted to live in hot deserts?
They have flat feet to spread their weight on the sand and store fat in the humps as an emergency source of energy
How are Kangaroo rats adapted to live in hot deserts?
They can convert the seeds they eat into water and their kidneys ensure very little water loss
Where is the Thar desert located?
It stretches across North West India and into Pakistan. It covers an area of 200,000 km² and is the most densely populated desert in the world.
How is tourism an opportunity in the Thar Desert?
It has beautiful landscapes and has annual desert festivals and camel safaris
How is mineral extraction an opportunity in the Thar Desert?
It has valuable reserves of minerals which are exported all over the world
How are extreme temperatures a challenge in the Thar Desert?
They can exceed 50°C in summer which can be bad for animals and humans health and have high rates of evaporation which can lead to water shortages
How is water supply a challenge in the Thar Desert?
Increased population has led to a demand for water which is a scarce resource
What is a human cause of desertification?
Population growth puts pressure on resources and over cultivation uses up nutrients in the soil which leads to soil erosion
What is a natural cause of desertification?
How is planting trees a management strategy for desertification? And give an example
For example the great green wall along the Sahel region and it helps to stabilise soil
What is an example of appropriate technology for desertification and how does it work?
Toyola stove which is made from locally sourced materials and uses less amounts of wood and charcoal
Sets found in the same folder
Paper 1, Section A
Paper 1, Section C - key definitions
Geography - Paper 1, Section C
AQA Tropical Rainforests
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