development through life

When does late adulthood begin?
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Terms in this set (29)
genes are partly responsible for longevity as well as the age at which noticeable physical changes start to occur
free radical theory-accumulating ROS over time might be associated with cataracts and arthritis.
genetic theories that consider cumulative effects that damage DNA and therefore result in aging:
1. cellular theories of aging- Hayflick Limit states human adult cells have a limited number of times that they can divide (~20), after this they begin to die
2. programmed cell death theories- focus on how cells are designed to self-destruct
subtypes of neurocognitive disorders/dementiaparkinsons- neurocognitive cognitive declines due to vascular disease- stroke a traumatic brain injury- involves trauma to the brain from impact to the head substance/medication induced- usually due to a lifetime of heavy drug use such as alcohol abuse prion disease- caused by transmissible agents called prions that cause infection, eg Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (rare) individuals with HIV infection-have symptoms for at least a mild cognitive disorder Alzheimers- most common (60% of cases)what treatment is being used for HIV/AIDSHAART- highly active antiretroviral therapy, suppresses HIV replication, often experience lower rates of neurocognitive issues3 stages of Alzheimers-Early: deficits may not be recognized, family/friends may notice subtle changes in memory, may begin to have trouble with some activities, altered mood -Middle: changes in memory, speech, orientation and ability to perform daily activities increases to the point where some independence is lost. Gait problems -Late: Pt is completely dependent for cares. Can no longer eat, walk, speak, or use a toilet because they cannot remember how to do them. typically have health problems as a result fo being bed-ridden and sedentarywhen does an adult need to be concerned about having Alzheimers diseaseif cognitive deficits are disruptive to everyday life.10 warning signs of Alzheimer's- memory loss that disrupts daily life - challenges in planning or solving problems - difficulty completing familiar tasks - disorientation to time and place - trouble with understanding visual images and spatial relations - problems with words in speaking or writing - misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace - decreased or poor judgement - withdraw from work or social activities - changes in mood and personalityWhat causes ADresearch has ruled out many environmental substances (aluminum and aspartame), however precise causes are still not known. While amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characterize the brains of AD patients, they are also seen in patients without AD. This leads researchers to continue to investigate why individuals may function so differently with and without these abnormal brain structures.three theories regarding socioemotional changes in late adulthooddisengagement theory activity theory selective optimization with compensation theorydisengagement theoryCumming and Henry's states adults should withdraw from society in order to prepare for death late adulthood is a time for decreasing social interaction thought adults would be more satisfied in their declining years if they didn't concern themselves with society many adults today more or less subscribe to this theoryactivity theorythe theory that the more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives there are many barriers for older adults to maintain this social interaction, they need to be creative in considering ways to maintain an active social life.selective optimization with compensationThe theory, developed by Baltes, that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well.what does it mean to successfully ageaging happens, but not all adults age well. selective optimization with compensation in addition to humor and spirituality other common features include perceived good health, an active lifestyle, continued independence in functioning, lack of disability, absence of cognitive impairment, and positive social relationshipsdefinition of deathcessation of all bodily processes, stopped heartbeat and breathing brain death(complete cessation of the brain and brain stem) is a prevailing definition in western societies however some argue that the cessation of just higher cortical functioning is all that should be necessary to declare death.well known theory pertaining to death and dyingElisabeth Kubler-Ross's theory usually applied to an individual coping with another persons impending death originally conceived to dealing with ones own approaching deathfive stages of dying1. Denial- when one hears the diagnosis 2. Anger- one may feel thwarted or robbed of life 3. Bargaining- with god, doctors, friends, and family 4. Depression- feeling there is nothing one can do to change the circumstances 5. Acceptance- may occur only at the end (if at all) for some people and is characterized by feelings of peaceeuthanasiapainlessly killing or permitting the death of someone who is severely injured or sick can be active(an agent is administered to hasten death) or passive( an agent does not permit life sustaining measures to be used)hospiceservices for the terminally ill and their families may be a physical location or they are sent to the patients home treat physical needs (nausea, pain) as well as social and spiritual needspalliative carecomfort care, emphasis on comfort rather than cure on enhancing the quality of life rather than prolonging it hospice emphasizes palliative caregriefpsychological reaction to a loss typical aspects include sadness, anxiety, and angermourningbehavior undertaken while grieving strongly culturally determined