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2.2 food, nutrition and health MICRONUTRIENTS
Terms in this set (31)
Sources of fat-soluble vitamins
Storing fat-soluble vitamins
The body stores fat-soluble vitamins it doesn't use in fat tissue, therefore we don't have to eat the same amounts of fat-soluble vitamins every day, we r in danger of storing excess vitamins
Vitamin A, what is it used for, what is it, where does it come from?
Needed for growth, healthy immune system, and good skin and eyesight, it is an antioxidant, it comes from retinal. Meat, full-fat milk and fatty fishes, carotene for orange/yellow fruits and veg
Excess and deficiency of vitamin A, how much is recommended
Excess - can weaken bones. Pregnant women are told to avoid it.
Deficiency - weaken the immune system, cause blindness at night and inflamed skin and stunts growth
Guidelines - 0.7 mg for me, 0.6 mg for women
Vitamin D, where it comes from, what does it do?
Comes from fish liver oils and fatty fish, from sunlight, it aids mineral absorption, including calcium. Our bodies need calcium for healthy teeth and bones in
Excess and deficiency of vitamin A
Excess - too much calcium can cause damage to our kidneys
Deficiency - bone diseases such as osteomalacia, osteoporosis and rickets
Guidelines - 0.01 mg a day
Vitamin E sources, what does it do, what is it?
Comes from vegetables oils, nuts, seeds and green leafy vegetables, it helps boost the immune system, healthy skin and eyes, it is an antioxidant
Excess and deficiency of vitamin E, guidelines
Excess - nausea, disrupt blood clotting and blurred vision
Deficiency - weak muscles and eyesight problems
Guidelines - men: 4mg, women: 3mg
Vitamin k, sources and what does it do
Comes from leafy greens, liver, green tea, cheese, supports the immune system and healthy bones, helps blood clotting
Vitamin K excess and deficiency and guidelines
Excess - never too much
Deficiency - v unlikely however some babies can suffer from uncontrolled bleeding
Guidelines - 0.001 mg per kg of body weight
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
Water soluble vitamins, intake and excess
Intake - the body does not store them, therefore we must eat them every day
Excess - v rare as our body excretes them, too much can lead to diarrhoea and stomach pains
What are the water soluble vitamins?
B and C
What is B9, sources, uses, deficiency
B9 - folic acid, comes from leafy greens, helps grow healthy babies as they form red blood cells
Deficiency - fatigue, muscle weakening and anaemia, v important for women
What are the sources of B1 Thiamin?
Meat, whole meal bread, fortified breakfast cereals, milk
What does B1 (Thiamine) do?
Supports nervous system and helps to release energy from carbohydrates
Signs of an excess of B1 thiamin
Weakened muscles, fatigue, beriberi
B3 niacin sources
Wheat, nuts, meat and fish
What does B3 Niacin do?
Helps release energy, healthy skin and nervous system
Signs of too little B3 niacin
Diarrhoea, dementia and sores in mouth
Sources of vitamin c
Citrus fruits, kiwi, blackcurrants, cabbage, new potatoes
What does vitamin c do
Fights infection and protects against allergies, heals wounds, maintains healthy blood vessels
Signs of vitamin c deficiency
Scurry, it is an antioxidant so too little can increase the risk of getting cancer
What is B12, sources, excess and deficiency, uses
Comes from, liver, cheese, yeast, fish, eggs. Helps the nervous system to make healthy red blood cells
Deficiency - fatigue, nerve damage and anaemia
B2 riboflavin, sources, uses, excess and deficiency
Comes from milk, fortified breakfasts, mushrooms and eggs. It helps release energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins
Deficiency - mouth sores, sore throat and dry skin
Why is it important to prepare fruit and vegetables only before we eat them?
Leaving water soluble fruits and veg in water will dissolve their vitamins, cutting them into small pieces means less surface area is exposed to air - vitamin c is lost when in contact with air
Minerals - calcium, excess and deficiency
Comes from, dairy and green veg, needed for strong teeth and bones, helps maintain nerved and muscles to support blood clotting
Excess - increased risk of kidney stones and kidney failure
Deficiency - weakened teeth and bones, blinding of bones, slowed blood clotting,
Iron, sources, excess and deficiency
Comes from red meat and dark green veg, important part of haemoglobin which makes red blood cells red
Excess - constipation, nausea, stomach cramps
Deficiency - anaemia, pale skin, fatigue
Minerals - sodium, excess and deficiency
In most food, can be an additive, supports nerve and muscle fin ion, helps monitor the body's water content.
Excess - high blood pressure and cardiovascular problems
Deficiency - nausea and muscle cramps
Minerals - phosphorus, excess and deficiency
From high protein foods, needed for strong teeth and bonded and making cell membranes
Excess - can make calcium absorption more difficult
Deficiency - painful bones and weekend muscles
Which of the following is protein not used for?
Primary source of energy
Primary source of energy
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