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Higher Geography - Prelim Revision

Terms in this set (37)

- A drainage basin in an open system only has one input known as precipitation. This is any form of water which falls from the sky e.g rain, snow or hail.
- This precipitation can be caught by vegetation in the storage known as interception.
- From here, two things can happen to the water. It can be evaporated by the sun from the vegetation in the output known as evapotranspiration.
- Or the process of stem flow might occur. A transfer where water drips off the surface of leaves, or runs down the trunk of trees, making its way to the surface.
- The storage of water here is known as a storage surface with some examples being lakes, rivers etc. Here it can have 3 fates.
- The water might travel horizontally across the surface towards a river. This is known as surface runoff.
- From here it might reach the output channel storage, when water is stored in rivers before reaching the sea. Surface storage can also go straight to the output evapotranspiration.
- Lastly it might make its way vertically down into the soil below in the transfer called infiltration.
- Here it could be held in the soil in the storage known as soil moisture.
- This can either go horizontally through the soil in the transfer known as through flow (leading into channel storage), or it can be further transferred into rocks further down, called percolation.
- This water being held in the rocks here is the storage groundwater.
- It then moves onto the transfer groundwater flow, where water moves horizontally through the soil, from the rocks, and makes its way to a river (channel storage).
- Rising sea levels. This has caused large numbers of people who live in low lying vulnerable areas, like China or Bangladesh, to relocate increasing climate refugee numbers. This is because many of these places might not have the resources to deal with it.
- These rising sea levels have also caused an increase in coastal erosion, causing a loss in habitats for fish and birds.
- Melting of glaciers and ice sheets. Areas such as Alaska which rely on the runoff from melting glaciers might experience water shortages when they're eventually gone.
- Health. Direct impact of the increased natural disaster due to climate change. More people will die as a result of these tsunamis, earthquakes etc.
- Increased likelihood of heatwaves might also cause a higher likelihood of water-borne diseases such as cholera.
- Increased floods might lead to more ground erosion and as a result, more sand storms. This could leave some villages left under sand.
- Economic Impact. Reduced rain water in continents like Africa or Asia, due to increased temperatures, means there is less water available for agriculture, affecting global food production rates.
- Tourism problems might occur for example less snow on mountains might run companies which rely on skiing out of business.
- Changes to habitats. Increased temperatures have led to a sharp increase in the number of spruce bark beetle population. These beetles have chewed up over 4 million spruce trees.
- Ecosystems will change as some species migrate, leaving others who can't without a food source.
- In order to reduce emissions, local governments have encouraged people to change their diet to more locally sourced foods.
- This has limited the emissions from the vehicles used to transport the food however there is a very limited range of options. This could lead to people becoming bored of having the same thing and resorting back to their old ways.
- Again to reduce the amounts of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere, those who own environmentally friendly cars pay less road tax. This has encouraged people to buy these electric cars and sales have risen every year since 2010. However, the batteries of these cars are made from materials which are unsustainable, expensive and of which we don't yet have an effective method of disposing of. Many will just end up on landfill.
- To reduce the heat energy produced by households the U.K. government is providing grants or loans for people to have their homes insulated. This has reduced the heat energy produced by making houses more energy efficient and reducing the amount of gas/oil used in central heating. However, lots of people despite this still can't afford to insulate, plus these programmes are only offered at certain times throughout the year.
- Countries around the world must try to replant trees whenever they chop one down. This means that the trees take in more carbon dioxide, acting as a carbon sink reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However these trees still take decades to grow and might not reduce carbon dioxide levels until it's too late.
- Lastly a cap is being placed on the amount of emissions a country can use. Once they have used it up they are allowed to buy and trade with other countries. This is positive because factories become more aware of their emissions reducing the amount of greenhouse gases produced however, it doesn't really solve the problem. Countries can still emit, and will find ways to fool and get around the strategy.
Name Case Study
- One housing issue in Edinburgh is the lack of affordable housing. This is due to the population of Edinburgh increasing at very high rates occupying almost all housing and demanding new homes to be built.
- Those in Edinburgh on some of the lowest incomes also have experienced the biggest wage decreases. This makes it even harder for them to afford housing.
- Another housing issue in Edinburgh is the quality of housing. Around half of properties rented in the private sector and 39% in the social sector fail to meet the quality standards of housing, with poor standards of hygiene and repair. This could be dangerous to those living in these properties.
- Another housing issue in Edinburgh is short term rental properties. Places such as Airbnb's price locals out of the market, and are very hard to keep track off.
- These Airbnb's also tend to be rented by people partying who make noise, say up late etc, disturbing surrounding residents.
- Studentification - too many students - in an area is also I major housing issue in Edinburgh. This increase in students has led to things such as cheap/substandard renovations due to property owners knowing that they'll only be renting out to students, who most likely won't care too much.
- It has also led to empty properties over summer as the student go home from where they're studying. These properties are essentially a waste of space and could be used to accommodate those without homes.
- Homelessness is also a massive housing issue in Edinburgh. All of the above has led to some people simply not affording or being able to move into property, greatly increasing the number of homeless people here in Edinburgh.
Named Case Study
- To combat a lack of affordable housing in Edinburgh, 263 homes which are affordable spread across 7 different sites are being built by the small sites programme through the Edinburgh Council.
- Rather than having vacant space this utilises these areas, ensuring more housing can be built for those who want to stay in the area but can't due to the lack of housing.
- However, this will hardly make a dent in the vast issue if affordable housing, with 46000 homes still needing to be built.
- To tackle poor quality housing, money has been spent to renovate these homes into a better standard of housing reducing mould and dampness.
- This greatly improves people's standard of living and they no longer have to worry about basic things, like their house not being safe.
- However this will take a while for the repairs to come, the wait lasting up to years and years for some.
- To put an end to the issue of too many short term rental properties, property owners now must apply for a license in order to short term let.
- This is effective as it allows local authorities to see how many short term lets are in an area, and control whether more should be allowed.
- Purpose built student accommodation is being built - to tackle studentification - ensuring local areas have no more than 30% of students.
- This limits the number of students in an area, reducing the amount of antisocial behaviour, whilst also ensuring the quality of housing is maintained (as they are managed by the university).
- However it is very difficult to reduce the student numbers in areas which are already above this 30% limit, and would have to involve some missing out on further education, a degree etc.
- To tackle homelessness, the Social Bite Village will provide a safe living environment for up to 20 people from a homeless background for around 12 months.
- The will help to get these people back on their feet as they have access to help on site whilst feeling safe and secure.
- On the contrary, the village is funded heavily by a number of charities so is reliant on funding. If this funding stops, for some reason, it could be forced to close.