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Scientists have attempted to estimate the amount of water in the hydrosphere many times and there is a general agreement that it amounts to what?
Some 1,388 x 10/9 km3.
It is thought approximately that what % of the Earth's water is oceanic and fresh?
97% is oceanic water and 2.5%/3% is fresh being locked up in land ice, glaciers and permafrost (cryosphere water), groundwater, lakes, soils. wetlands, rivers, biomass (terrestrial water) and atmospheric water.
The hydrosphere is subdivided into what four things?
Oceanic water, cryospheric water, terrestrial water and atmospheric water.
What is oceanic water?
The oceanic water is water found within the Earth's oceans.
Oceanic water is divided into what?
Several principle oceans found throughout the world as well as numerous smaller seas.
Oceanic water contains 97% of the world's water, how much of this has been explored?
What is cryosphere water?
Its water found on Earth's surface in a solid form. More specifically as sea ice, glaciers or permafrost.
One example of cryospheric water is ice sheets, what are these and there are two major ice sheets on Earth today where are these and they contain how much of freshwater ice on Earth?
They are masses of glacial land ice extending more than 50,000 km2. Antarctica and Greenland which contain 99% of the freshwater ice on Earth.
One example of cryospheric water is alpine glaciers , what are these and give an example of where these are important?
Thick masses of ice found in deep valleys or in upland hollows. Most valley glaciers are fed by ice from ice caps or smaller glaciers. These glaciers are particularly important in the Himalayas, where about 15,000 Himalayan glaciers exist.
One example of cryospheric water is permafrost, what is this?
Ground (soil or rock) which remains at or below freezing for at least 2 consecutive years.
One example of cryospheric water is permafrost, what is the thickness of this and where is it predominant?
The thickness of permafrost varies from less than 1 metre up to 1500 metres having formed 10,000 years ago. Permafrost is predominant in the Arctic circle.
One example of cryospheric water is ice caps, what are these and where are they usually found and give examples?
They are thick layers of ice on land that are smaller than 50,000 km2. They are usually found in mountainous areas such as the Himalayas and the Andes.
One example of cryospheric water is ice caps, what type of shape do they tend to be?
They tend to be cone shaped and are centered on the highest point in upland areas.
One example of cryospheric water is sea ice , what is this and when is it formed?
It is the portions of the Earth's seas and oceans which exist in solid form. It forms when water in the oceans is cooled below the freezing point.
One example of cryospheric water is ice shelves, what is this and where do they mainly exist?
They are platforms of ice which form ice sheets and glaciers which move out into the oceans. These exist mainly in Antarctica and Greenland.
What is terrestrial water?
Water found on the land masses on Earth also known as terrestrial water, it is found in four main forms: surface, ground, soil and biological water.
One example of terrestrial water is groundwater, what is this?
Water that collects underground in the pore spaces of rock and can be found over 4000m below the Earth's surface. The depth at which the pore spaces found in these rocks are completely saturated with water is called the water table.
One example of terrestrial water is biological water, what is this and give an example.
Water stored in all of the biomass and varies widely around the world depending on vegetation cover and type. For example, areas of dense rainforest store much more water than in deserts. Water stores in animals is very minimal compared to plants.
One example of terrestrial water is soil water, what is this?
Water which is held together with air in unsaturated upper weathered layers of the Earth's surface (soil).
One example of terrestrial water is soil water, soil water has a massive impact on what?
It has a massive impact upon the water cycle and the weather patterns found throughout the world.
What is atmospheric water?
Water simply found within the atmosphere. Water found within the atmosphere around the world, which normally consists in 3 different forms: gas, water and vapour.
Water in the atmosphere is predominantly found as what?
Water vapour, with some as liquid water in the form of clouds and rain droplets as well as ice crystals.
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