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Theme 2 - changing environments
Climate and weather
Terms in this set (106)
What is evaporation?
When water heats up and turns into water vapour
What is precipitation?
Any type of liquid that comes from the sky
What is surface run off?
Water that flows over land
What is groundwater flow?
Water that flows through the ground
What is infiltration?
When Water the penetrates the soil
What does permeable mean?
A porous rock which allows water into it
What does impermeable mean?
When No water can penetrate into a rock
What is condensation?
When water cools and turns into a liquid
What is transpiration?
Water that evaporates from leaves...
What is through flow?
The flow of water within the soil
What is percolation?
When water soaks deep into the ground
What is interception?
When an object (building, tree) stops precipitation reaching the ground beneath.
Describe the water cycle starting from surface run off
Surface runoff - the water runs into a body of water, the water evaporates and condenses into rain condensation this can then lead to surface run off again or infiltration, causing ground water flow, the water the runs into a larger body of water
What is a drainage basin?
The area of land drained by a river
What is a water shed?
The edge of a drainage basin
What is a tributary?
a river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake.
What is a confluence?
Where two rivers meet
What is an estuary?
The part of a river mouth that is tidal
What is a river mouth?
Where the river meets the sea
What is the source of a river?
where a river begins
What is a delta?
An area of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river
How is a delta formed?
when a river lacks energy it will deposited material when it meets the sea, this forms a delta which is like a barrier at the edge of the sea
What is hydrological action?
When water and air forced into cracks in the riverbed causing cracks to expand and rocks to weaken
What is abrasion?
When the sediment that is being carried repeatedly hits the river banks or beds
What is attrition?
Rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into smaller, smoother and rounder particles.
What is a solution?
Sediments that dissolve in water and are carried along by the river
What is traction?
Large boulders and rocks rolled along the river bed
What is saltation?
Larger rocks and pebbles bounce along the river bed
What is suspension?
Smaller rocks carried within the water column
Explain why the size of the bed load particles decreases as you get closer to the sea
As the river loses energy it drops it's load, it drop the heavier load first
What processes and features occur in the upper course of a river?
Mainly vertical erosion
Features: source, rapids, gorges, waterfalls, v shaped valleys
What processes and landforms do you find in the middle course of a river?
Processes: downwards and lateral erosion, some deposition
Features: meanders, river cliffs, flood plains
What processes and landforms do you find in the lower course of a river?
Processes: little erosion, more deposition as the river loses energy
Features: embankments, floodplains, meanders, ox bow lakes, deltas, estuaries and river mouths
How is a V-shaped valley formed?
When a river has a lot of vertical erosion, a steep sided valley is formed, over time lateral erosion causes the valley to widened creating a v shaped valley
How is a waterfall formed?
Underlying rock is soft and warn away by hydraulic action, this is called undercutting. This leaves a layer of hard rock which overhangs the layer of soft rock.
Water flows over the overhang and the underlying soft rock is worn away by hydraulic action creating a plunge pool in the soft rock below. The large angular rock which collapses into the river will swirl around and abrade the river bed sideward and downward, creating a large plunge pool
The waterfall then retreats upstream, creating a steep, gorge-like valley
How does an ox bow lake form?
When the outside bend of a meander, water flows faster, eroding the outside bends through hydraulic action and corrosion. There is less water in the inside bend, and increase in friction and a decrease in energy meaning water deposits material here. - the course is changing
Over time continual erosion and deposition narrows the neck of the meander, during floods the river will cut through the neck of the meander, the river continues to flow on this straighter path and the meander is abandoned; creating an oxbow lake that will eventually dry up except during periods of heavy rainfall
How do levees form?
When a river floods it will spread across the surrounding area. The sudden increase in friction will slow the velocity of the river, it will lose energy amid the fine silt will be deposited. The larges material will be deposited first forming an natural embankment/levee
Where is a slip off slope formed?
The inside of a river bend, here water loses energy so deposits its material
Where on a river bend is a river cliff?
On the outside of a river bend, here a river travels faster so there is more hydraulic action, undercutting the river edge creating a river cliff
What is a hydrograph?
A graph showing how discharge changes with time
What is annual regime of a river?
The discharge of a river over a year
What is river discharge?
Volume of water that flows through a particular point of a river per second
What is base flow?
The smallest amount of weather flowing in a channel to still be a river
What is a flood?
When a river channel overflows
What are the natural causes of a flood?
Heavy rain, steep slopes, impermeable rock, saturated soil
What are the human causes of a flood?
Built up areas of land, deforestation
What is lag time?
The delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge
What is peak discharge?
The highest point on the graph, when the river discharge is at its greatest.
What is the falling limb?
Decrease in river discharge as river returns to normal level
What is precipitation?
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
What is a rising limb?
The increase in river discharge as rainwater flows into the river
What is base flow?
the normal, day-to-day discharge of the river
What is a slow onset flood?
Develops over a period of days and lasts a week or so
What is a rapid onset flood?
Occurs more quickly often in the highlands that have large river catchments
What is a flash flood?
An immediate response to a short period of rainfall which was intense. The river level rises without warning
What kind of engineering is dams and reservoirs, how do they work and what are their advantages and disadvantages
Hard engineering, store water over long periods of rainfall, ADV: stored water can be used as drinking water and to generate electricity, etc DIS: expensive, can flood, eroded material is deposited in the reservoir
What kind of engineering is channel straightening, how does it work and what is its advantages and disadvantages?
Hard, it physically straightens a river ADV: water moves through potential flood zones quicker DIS: flooding downstream is increased, increased erosion downstream
What kind of engineering is a flood warning, how does it work and what is its advantages and disadvantages?
Soft, warns people of up and coming floods ADV: increases amount of time people have to evacuate and prepare their homes DIS: does not stop floods from happening
What kind of engineering is flood plain zoning, how does it work and what is its advantages and disadvantages?
Soft, it zones areas around river, based on the level of risk ADVANTAGES: less building and infrastructure damaged, DISADVANTAGES: limits growth of urban areas
What kind of engineering is dredging, how does it work and what are its advantages and disadvantages?
Hard, deepens the river channel ADV: increases capacity of river DIS: more problems downstream, disrupts habitats
What kind of engineering is raising levees, how does it work and what are its advantages and disadvantages?
Hard, increases size of levees on the banks of a river, ADV: increases capacity for the river, DIS: if it breaks flood damage is worse
What type of engineering is preparation, how does it work and what are its advantages and disadvantages?
Soft, people will know how to respond to a flood, ADV: damage reduced DIS: doesn't guarantee safety, creates a false sense of security
What type of engineering is doing nothing about a flood, how does it work and what are its advantages and disadvantages
Soft, ADV: it is cheep, DIS: doesn't reduce the impact of flooding
When did the Boscastle flood take place?
On the 16th of august two thousand and four
What were the natural causes of the Boscastle flood?
Impermeable land, Steep sided valleys , Heavy rain, River confluence, Trees blocked the channel , Saturated ground
What human factors caused the Boscastle flood?
Increased number of buildings near the river
Artificially narrowed channel
Removal of vegetation
How is the Boscastle flooding being managed?
A £4.6 million flood defence scheme is now in place
Parts of the river have been widened
River bed has been lowered
Trees removed from near the river
New flood defence wall
What social damage did the Boscastle flood cause?
Streets and anxiety of local people
6 homes swept into the sea
What environmental damage did the Boscastle flood cause?
Pavements and gardens damaged by the weight of the water
Wildlife and habitats destroyed
Oil from cars got into the sea
What economic damage did the Boscastle flood cause?
100's of businesses destroyed
Insurance companies paid out £20 million
Town closed of to tourism despite this being its main industry
When did the Bangladesh flooding take place?
What is the a monsoon and how are they created?
Hot weather creates low pressure which results in wind. Wind comes from the sea, it is wet, wind meets the mountain and it rains
What are the natural and human causes of the Bangladesh flood?
Natural —> monsoon arrived early, prolonged rain, heavy monsoon rain
Human —> flood defences failed
What hard engineering protocols were put in place to manage the Bangladesh flooding?
Dhaka integrated flood protection project: build embankments, slope protection to reduce erosion, storm drains, flood gates which channel how much water can enter them
What soft engineering protocols have been put in place to prevent Bangladesh flooding?
Some villages have been raised above sea level, flood shelters, give radios to committees to give flood warnings
What social, environmental and economic damage did the Bangladesh flooding cause?
Social —> 379 dead in Bihar, 697,000 homes destroyed in Bangladesh, 18,000 schools closed, overall health toll of 1200
Environmental —> landslides in Nepal, contaminated mud
Economic —> repair damaged homes, loss of farm land
What is weather?
Day-to-day conditions of Earth's atmosphere
What is climate?
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
What is a temperate maritime climate?
Mild temperatures not much lower than 0 degrees not much higher than 32 degrees, damp climate
What is an air mass?
A large area of air which has similar temperature and humidity levels
What affects the UK's weather?
Britain is in the temperate climate zone. British weather is dominated by frontal depressions which give changeable weather. The Gulf Stream causes western Britain to fave mild winters. Easter Britain has colder winters which are influenced by continental air masses. In summer the south of Britain is warmer than the north due to the higher levels of solar heat in the south.
What weather mass comes from the north west and what does it bring?
Polar maritime, cold and showers
What weather mass comes from the north and what does id bring?
Artic maritime, snow in winter
What weather mass comes from the east and what weather does it bring?
Polar continual, cold snowy winter and hot dry summers
What air mass comes from the south east and what kind of weather does it bring?
Tropical continental, hot and dry weather, very hot in the summer
What air mass comes from the south west and what kind of weather does it bring?
Tropical maritime, warm and moist, cloudy, rain, mild
How does latitude effect climate?
Smaller area to heat up at the equator and less atmosphere to pass through; larger areas to heat up the further away you get from the equator so it's colder
How does altitude effect climate?
As height increases temperature decreases because air is less dense
How does prevailing wind effect climate?
If wind blows over a cold area it brings cold weather, blows over hot area, hot weather and it blows over a wet area it brings wet weather
How does ocean currents effect climate?e
Warm ocean currents are like a conveyor belt and make climate warmer along the coasts of the uk
How does continentality effect climate?
In summer coastal areas are cooler than inland areas, I'll the winter its is the opposite
What are the six components of weather?
Precipitation, temperature, wind speed and direction, pressure, visibility and cloud cover, hours of su n
What weather does high pressure/anticyclones bring?
In winter: cold dry winters, clear skies
In summer: hot dry summers, clear skies
What weather does low pressure/depressions bring?
Cool temperatures, rainy, windy and cloudy
What is relief rainfall?
Warm moist air is forced to rise up above high areas, it cools and condenses resulting in rain
What is convection rainfall?
Land warms up heating the air above. This air rises and expands, as it rises to cools and condenses creating rain
What is frontal rainfall?
Warm air is forced to rise up over a cold front. The warm air cools and condenses quickly creating heavy rain x
How are hurricanes/cyclones formed?
Warm ocean temperatures causes warm water to rise and create thunderstorms. Wind spirals up and out creating a low pressure system/ warm air condenses causing clouds to form. The air starts to spin into the centre where the low pressure is creating a hurricane
What were the causes, immpacts and responses of hurricane Irma in 2017?
Causes: warm ocean conditions provided Irma with the energy needed to form a category 5 hurricane. The hurricane got stronger as it took a while for it to hit land.
Impacts: $500 billion of damage in the USA, half of the residents Antigua and Bermuda lost their homes, electricity went down, many homes and businesses were flooded, storm surges and heavy rain hit Florida
Responses: FEMA provided food and water to USA states which require it, emergency services evacuates homes, the hurricane was tracked so we could predict when it would hit, shelter were created for the evacuated, search and rescue operations
Where is sahel?
The sahel is located above the equator in Africa, above the equator and boarders the desert
What is desertification?
The degradation of land in especially in semi arid areas due to climate change and human activities. The land become desert like
What are the physical and human factors that cause drought?
Physical: climate change, unreliable rain
Human: overgrazing, deforestation, fires to clear areas, unsustainable farming
What are the impacts of drought/desertification?
Crop failure leading to famine, soil erosion by wind and rain, nutrients lost from soil, conflict between people, makes development difficult, dust storms
What are the positive impacts of desertification/drought?
Tourism, statues of women increase as men have to leave to work, some communities are bought closer together
What are the short term solutions to a drought?
Refugee camps, medical aid, food and clothing
What are the long term solutions to drought?
Introduction of drought resistant crops, fence of areas to prevent grazing, plant trees and bushes to shelter the soil, collect branches and wood instead of cutting down trees
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