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15.7 Urine and Diagnosis:
Terms in this set (26)
What does urine contain?
Urine contains water, urea, mineral salts and much more. It contains the breakdown of products of a whole range of chemicals including hormones and any toxins taken into the body
What often happens when you're ill?
If you are affected by one of a number of diseases, new substances will show up in your urine.
What is a characteristic of urine that suggests the person has diabetes?
The presence of glucose in the urine is a well-known symptom of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
What will show up in urine if you have muscle damage?
If you have muscle damage, large amounts of creatine will show up in urine.
Urine and Pregnancy Testing:
What happens after six days after conception?
The human embryo implants in the uterus around six days after conception. The site of the developing placenta then begins to produce a chemical called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
Where is hCG found?
Some hCG is found in the blood and the urine of the mother.
What do modern pregnancy tests use to test for pregnancy?
Modern pregnancy tests use hCG in the urine and rely on monoclonal antibodies. Some are so sensitive that pregnancy can be detected within hours of implantation.
Making Monoclonal Antibodies:
What are monoclonal antibodies?
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies from a single clone of cells that are produced to target particular cells or chemicals in the body.
How are monoclonal antibodies produced?
A mouse is injected with hCG so it makes the appropriate antibody.
The B-cells that make the required antibody are then removed from the spleen of the mouse and fused with myeloma, a type of cancer cell which divides very rapidly.
This new fused cell is known as hybridoma.
Each hybridoma reproduces rapidly, resulting in a clone of millions of living factories making the desired antibody.
These monoclonal antibodies are then collected, purified and used in a variety of ways.
What is the first stage of a pregnancy test?
The wick is soaked in the first urine passed in the morning. This will have the highest levels of hCG
How does the test detect hCG?
The test contains mobile monoclonal antibodies that have very small coloured beads attached to them. They will only bind to hCG. If a woman is pregnant the hCG in her urine binds to the mobile monoclonal antibodies and forms a hCG antibody complex. The urine then carries on along the test structure until it reaches a window
What happens once the urine reaches the window?
Once at the window, the immobilized monoclonal antibodies are arranged in a line or pattern such as a plus sign that only binds to the hCG antibody complex. If the woman is pregnant a coloured line or pattern appears in the first window. The urine will then continue up through the test to the second window
What happens at the second window?
At the second window there is usually a line of immobilised monoclonal antibodies that bind only to the mobile antibodies, regardless of whether they are bound to hCG or not. This coloured line forms regardless of whether the woman is pregnant, it simply indicates that the test is working.
What will happen to the test if the woman is pregnant?
If the woman is pregnant, two coloured patterns appear. If she is not pregnant, only one appears.
Urine and Anabolic Steroids:
Why do athletes use steroids?
Athletes and bodybuilders may try to cheat by using anabolic steroids.
What do anabolic steroids do?
Anabolic steriods are durgs that mimic the action of the male sex hromone testosterone and they stimualt the growth of muscles. They are however excreted in the urine.
How can you tell if an individual has been using steroids?
By testing the urine using gas chromatography and gas spectrometry, scientists can show that an individual has been using these drugs. The urine sample is vaporised with a known solvent and passed along a tube. The lining of the tube absorbs the gases and is analysed to give a chromatogram that can be read to show the presence of the drugs.
Urine and Drug Testing:
What other drugs is urine used to test for?
Urine is tested for the presence of many other different drugs, including alcohol.
Why is the urine used specifically?
This is because drugs are filtered through the kidneys and stored in the bladder, it is possible to find drug traces in the urine some time after a drug has been used.
What often happens if someone is suspected of taking an illegal drug?
If someone is suspected of having taken an illegal drug, they may be asked to provide a urine sample and this will be divided into two.
What is the first sample used for?
The first sample may be tested by immunoassay, using monoclonal antibodies to bind to the drug or its breakdown product.
What will happen if the first sample shows positive?
If this shows positive, the second sample may be run through a gas chromatography to confirm the presence of the drug
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