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Microbiomes, evolution and health
Terms in this set (14)
What is the human microbiome?
All genomes of microorganisms that inhabit body site
What is microbiota?
the community of microorganisms that inhabit a body site
What does data from germ free animals show?
-enlargement of caecum and degenerative diseases of intestinal tract; animals require microbes for normal intestinal development
-germ free rats are vitamin deficient; microbes synthesise vitamins
-under developed immune systems;microbes needed to stimulate development of host responses
-higher rates of autoimmune disease-microbes needed to stimulate immune systems
When does colonization occur of human body?
Immediately at birth
How much more bacteria is in the body?
What are bacterioidetes?
Gram negative anaerobic bacteria
Process indigestible carbs in host intestine
Dominate in people who eat plenty of protein/animal fats
What are firmicutes?
Gram positive bacteria
Ferment simple sugars to produce short chain fatty acids
What is the goal of the human microbiome project?
To characterise the microbes that inhabit the human body and examine whether changes in microbiome can be related to health and disease
What did human microbiome project find?
Discovered more diversity between bacterial phyla than expected
No taxa found in all 18 body sites
Distinct bacterial composition of microbiome from different niches ie firmicutes predominant in some individuals mouths
Which bacteria becomes most common when ageing?
What is dysbiosis?
microbial imbalance on or inside the body
What is the concept of dysbiosis through red and green bacteria?
Green bacteria feeds on fruit and veg, maintain balanced microbiome
Red bacteria feed on red meat, overgrowth of red bacteria produces toxins which reduces green bacteria and can cause inflammation of epithelial cells
What is the link between asthma and microbiomes?
Infants at risk of asthma had gut microbial dysbiosis during first 100 days of life
Why are c section babies more likely to get asthma?
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