Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Higher Geography - Urban, RLD, Coasts
Terms in this set (11)
For a Developed World City you have studied, explain the management strategies to overcome traffic congestion.
Named case study (Edinburgh)
- Parking charges. This includes the use of traffic wardens and permit holders ensuring only a limited amount of cars are able to park.
- Modernised Lothian buses. This is because they aim to offer people a quieter and more comfortable journey, making travelling much easier and pleasant.
- Designated cycle routes. Aim to encourage people to use bikes instead of engines, helping to reduce carbon dioxide emissions e.g Edinburgh City Cycleways
- Trams. Aim to transport people from A to B in the most eco-friendly and quietest way possible e.g the tram from Edinburgh Airport to St Andrews Square
- New roads built around the edges of Edinburgh encourage people to not pass through the city but rather go around e.g M9 Spur
- One way systems. Aims to improve traffic flow by ensuring vehicles can only travel in one direction on some streets.
- Park and ride schemes. Places where people are able to leave their cars before travelling into the city centre by public transport or another carbon neutral way.
- Green ways. Separate, designated bus lanes designed to make public transport more attractive and quicker, since only buses can travel on them.
Referring to a Developing World City you have studied, discuss the socio-economic and environmental problems associated with housing in shanty towns.
Name case study (Rio de Janeiro)
- The poor quality of housing and services. This is because many houses, especially in Favelas, are poorly constructed, make from not very durable material and no running water.
- The lack of services such as electricity is also an issue as it has led to people illegally tapping into electricity pylons, causing fires.
- Overcrowding. Many families have over 10 people, allowing for diseases and virus to spread easily. This is no better seen than in the recent COVID-19 pandemic since many were left unable to isolate.
- Crime and gang activity. Since Favelas aren't official settlements there isn't a police presence. This has led to large gang-cultures which export vast amount of drugs, are violent, steal etc, all of which nothing can be done about.
- Wealth divide. Some Favelas are built right next to luxury apartments. This has caused many to have animosity towards those living in them.
- Many in these Favelas also try to steal from these wealthier regions, as a last resort, in order to provide for their families.
- Landslides. Heavy rainfall can cause these landslides which have a direct impact on human health; many injuries and deaths.
- The flimsy nature of the houses built on the hillsides where these landslides are causes a domino effect. This is because the initial houses destroyed will fall onto houses below and so on.
- Lastly, a lack of employment and education is also an issue in these areas. This is as the chances of people breaking out of the cycle of poverty is reduced, leading to it carrying on for generations.
Referring to a Developing World City you have studied, explain the strategies to manage housing problems + comment on their effectiveness.
Name case study
- Self-help schemes. This is when city authorities provide resources such as building materials or tools in order for people to improve their standard of living for themselves.
- A positive of this is that it helps to bring the community together with people being able to help each other, boosting community spirit.
- Il also gives people an opportunity to develop new skills, making them employable in the future.
- Project Cingapura. This is when large areas of Favelas were cleared and replaced with tower blocks with safe electricity and running water.
- However, inhabitants were forced to pay rent and, despite being modest, many fell behind on payments and into debt.
- Local residents also complained about a lack of space and cheap building quality, causing many tower blocks to fall into disrepair.
- These blocks are now very visually scarring to the landscape, and may cause injuries if they collapse.
- Pacification. When police entered many Favelas aiming to take back control from gangs, and never let them return.
- Since 2008, crime rates, including murder, have decreased with many putting this down to the directness of the strategy.
- However, innocent bystanders have been killed in the gunfire, with many police not being charged for their violence due to corruption.
- Non-Governmental Organisations. Provide the money needed for the self-help schemes previously mentioned.
- NGO's are unfortunately reliant on funding and charitable donations. If these run out they may be forced to stop and close down.
For a Developing World City you have studied, discuss the management strategies used to reduce traffic issues.
Name case study
- Yellow Line Expressway connects the international airport to Barra da Tijuca.
- The road saves people from having to go all the way around the bay instead.
- A new bus system in Rio has also been built. Separate bus lanes and people buying their tickets at stations ensures transport is quicker, and encourages people to take public transport instead.
- The bus system asks has 90cm platforms, which ensures the buses are accessible for everyone since these are level with the bus steps.
- Bike Rio is a public bicycle which has provided 3100 bikes across 60 different stations.
- It allows people to take bikes and return them at a different point, making its use more convenient.
- Two metro lines also run in Rio with Bike Rio stations located near most of the metro stops. This makes the public transport a more viable opinion for commuters.
- These metro lines have also been updated recently been cleaner, safer and more air-conditioned than before.
Explain the impacts of rural land degradation on a semi-arid or rainforest area you have studied.
- Land degradation in the Sahel causes the land to be hot and dry. This means that the majority of crops will not be able to survive the harsh conditions
- This can lead to widespread famines such as Somalia in 2017. As a result, many might become malnourished.
- Malnutrition can be detrimental to these affected areas, since it makes people more susceptible to diseases such as Cholera or Yellow fever.
- RLD in the Sahel has also caused a great increase in urban migration as those who previously worked rurally search for new jobs. This has led to many urban areas becoming overcrowded, leading to the formation of shanty towns.
- The urban migration has also led to ethnic conflicts as people from different backgrounds are forced to live in close proximity to each other.
- Those fleeing these conflicts have formed large refugee camps. These have unsanitary conditions with many lacking clean drinking water or reliable food sources.
- Economically, RLD makes a country more reliant on aid, due to its funding going towards tackling the issue. This can leave it in debt, halting it's progression even further.
- Since vegetation is not able to survive the harsh conditions, the land becomes lighter, and - via the albedo effect - reflects more energy back into the atmosphere.
- This lack of vegetation also causes the fertile topsoil to blow away. This is because it is no longer held together by the vegetation's roots.
- Lastly, farmers are left discouraged due to RLD. This is because they become reliant on foreign food, so are left unable to achieve a good price for their crops.
Explain the strategies used to manage rural land degradation in a rainforest or semi-arid area that you have studied.
In order to manage RLD in the Sahel, many strategies have been put in place:
- Diguettes are lines of stones placed along the contours of flatter farming areas such as those in Burkina Faso. This aims to prevent water and consequently topsoil from running off, reducing sheet erosion.
- Fanya juu Terraces in Makanya in Tanzania are made by digging drainage channels on sloping land and throwing soil uphill to make a ridge with hopes of increasing infiltration. Over time, this sloping land will eventually level out.
- Agro-forestry is another management strategy to tackle RLD on the Sahel. This involves the traditional practices of planting crops and growing cattle under tree cover, with the hope that the trees will protect the soil from wind and rain and hold it together.
- Lastly, fuel efficient stoves in Niger concentrate the heat lost normally in open fires. Their aim is to increase wood savings by up to 50%.
- Drip irrigation projects involves the use of simple mechanisms which slowly add water to the soil. This ensures the water has time to infiltrate into the soil, reducing runoff.
- Permeable rock dams have also been used in areas affected by RLD. These are large trenches filled with rocks which allow water to infiltrate easily through the pore spaces between rocks. This ensures no water is evaporated since it is covered by the rock.
- Grazing management is when fences are built for livestock in parts of the Sahel. This allows the people to control which areas are grazed on, and allow areas to regenerate.
- Lastly one of the most important strategies being used in the Sahel is education. This is because it makes farmers aware of the causes and consequences of RLD, whilst enlightening them about better, more efficient farming methods.
Explain the effectiveness of the strategies used to manage rural land degradation in a rainforest or semi-arid area that you have studied.
- The use of diguettes in the Sahel has been effective as the strategy is simple to carry out, meaning it's easy for people to teach others, which increases its longevity.
- It also involves the use of basic, natural materials found all around in these places. This allows for many diguettes to be built without a worry for these materials running out.
- Fanya juu Terraces in Makanya in Tanzania haven't been as effective, as maintaining and even building these terraces is extremely labour intensive, with many needing to be built in close succession in order for the strategy to be successful.
- On the other hand, Fanya juu Terraces require the community to work together, boosting community spirit and togetherness in areas.
- In addition, as the land begins to level out and soil quality improves, crops will begin to require less water meaning they can survive in very low rainfall seasons.
- Agro-forestry is another management strategy to tackle RLD on the Sahel. This has not been very effective as trees tend to take years to grow meaning systems might not have an effect until it's too late.
- Although, once agro-forestry becomes more established in an area it is very self contained, requiring almost no maintenance or labour to be needed.
- Fuel efficient stoves in Niger mean less fuel is needed, less trees need to be cut down. This is effective at tackling RLD as the decreased deforestation ensures the roots from these trees are still holding the soil together which is much less likely to be eroded then.
- Grazing management in affected areas is also a strategy to tackle RLD. However, the miles of fencing the process requires is very expensive and some countries/places simply can't afford it.
- Educating farmers on the causes and consequences of RLD has been particularly effective. This is because it is preventing the problem rather than being a reactionary measure like many others.
Explain the formation of headlands and bays.
- Headlands and bays are most likely to be formed on disconcordant coastlines, where there are bands of more revisitant rock (e.g chalk) and less resistant rock (e.g clays).
- They are formed by differential erosion, where the less resistant rock eroded quicker than the more resistant rock.
- The rock is eroded by hydraulic action, when waves trap air in the cracks in the rock. When the waves retreat this air expands, causing the rocks to shatter.
- The rock is also eroded by corrasion. This is the sheer force of waves which throw sand and shingle at the bottom of the cliff.
- Since the harder rock is eroded less, it sticks out as a headland. Due to this, it is subjected to the highest energy destructive waves usually causing it to be further eroded.
- However, the bays are shelters and receive low energy constructive waves. This can cause small beaches in the bays.
Explain the formation of a wave cut platform.
- At high tides, and during storms, joints and small bedding planes on a cliff are undercut by wave erosion. An example of this is (name two examples and explain) (4)
- Due to this undercutting, a wave cut notch is formed which will eventually turn into a cave. As the notch is enlarged and weakened, cracks begin to show.
- Over time, the overhanging cliff above is no longer supported, and collapses.
- As this process repeats, the cliff retreats, exposing a gently sloping rocky surface - at its base - known as a wave cut platform - which extends out to sea, away from the cliff.
- The platform can be eroded by materials moved by the waves to create pot holes or rock pools both of which are seen at low tides.
Explain the formation of caves, arches, stacks or stumps.
- Headlands are subjected to wave erosion since they stick out. These waves will attack areas of weakness in the headland and further erode them.
- They do this through hydraulic action. Explain.
- The waves also do this though corrasion. Explain
- As these cracks are continually eroded, the headland becomes undercut leading to the formation of sea caves.
- These caves get deeper and larger over time. Sometimes a blow hole will form due to the erosion of a verticale joint above the sea cave.
- If a sea cave forms on either side of the headland, erosion will eventually cut all the way through creating an arch.
- As wave action continues, the foot of the arch is attacked which enlarges it. The arch becomes unstable with nothing to support it and eventually collapses due to gravity. This creates a free standing stack.
- Finally, continued weathering at the base of this stack reduces it to sea level and a stump is formed.
Explain the formation of a sand spit, tombolo or sand bar.
- A spit is a low ridge of sand that extends over a bay or estuary and is joined to the mainland at one end.
- Spits are created through the process of longshore drift. The prevailing wind and waves move sand and shingle up the beach at an angle, which is known as the smash. The returning backwash is dragged back at right angles to the beach due to gravity.
- When the direction of the coastline changes, all this sand and shingle is deposited in shallow water. sheltered by the headland.
- As the waves lose energy the larges bits of material are deposited first, enabling the spit to slowly build up above the sea level and to grow wider and longer.
- Sand is blown up the beach to form sand dunes, making the spit a more permanent feature.
- Waves cannot get past the spit. This creates a sheltered area behind it where silt is deposited, allowing mud flats or salt marches to form.
- The spit can develop a hook or 'recurved end' if the wind or current changes direction.
- A bar is formed when the spit extends fully across the bay, and joins another headland. The area of water dammed by the bar is known as a lagoon, and will eventually be infilled by deposition.
- This will happen when there is no strong current from a river to the sea.
- A tombolo is formed when the spit extends from the mainland and joins an island.
Other sets by this creator
Human Biology - Unit 3 - Key Definitions
Scottish Text Quotes
Redox + Carbon Chemistry
Higher Geography - Prelim Revision
Recommended textbook solutions
Ways of the World: A Global History
Robert W. Strayer
The Language of Composition: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric
Lawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses
Tonal Harmony, Workbook
Byron Almen, Dorothy Payne, Stefan Kostka
Basic College Mathematics
Dorothy Payne, Stefan Kostka