USA: Chapter 2, Increased social tensions

Describe the 18th Amendment
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How did prohibition effect the economy?Illegal alcohol could not be taxed.Why did the government lift prohibition?Hoped it would stimulate the economy in Wall Street crash.Effects of prohibition?How many speakeasies did New York have in32,000How many people were arrested in New York in the early 1920s for breaking prohibition laws?What statistic shows how prohibition failed?By 1929 70% of the people consuming alcohol in 1914 were still consuming alcohol.How did Gangs rule New York?Bribing legislative figures.Effects of bribery in prohibition?Weakens democracy. Crime + gangs disrupts the moral fibre of America. Weakens the rule of law.How many agents did the prohibition bureau have?Why was it easy to bribe the prohibition bureau officers?Low salary. Only $2,500 annually.How did America react to prohibition?Many Americans did not obey the law.Why was prohibition difficult to enforce?- people make their own liquor (moonshine) - President Harding serving alcohol in the White House - rebellious youth wanted to drink - juries unwilling to enforce laws or arrest.What was the Bible Belt divide?Divide between urban, modern values and Christian fundamentalist values.What were the concerns and criticisms of the Bible Belt?- concerns of growing consumerism - expenditure on luxury goods. - criticism of gambling and drinkingWhat do Christian fundamentalists believe?Everything in the Bible is true.How were Christian fundamentalists worried about the changing role of women?What did the Bible Belt feel about Charles Darwin?- fundamentalists disagreed with Darwin, his teaching contradicted the Bible which said god created universe in 6 days. - six states including Tennessee banned teaching of evolution.Who was John scopes?Young Tennessee teacher, who decided to illegally teach the Darwinian theory.Who was william Jennings Brian?Defending Christian fundamentalistsWho defended John scopes?Clarence DarrowWhat did Clarence Darrow do?Cross examine Jennings Brian.Effects of the monkey trial-Despite being victorious in the court room, fundamentalism was criticised and declined.Why had the U.S previously happily accepted immigrants?- provided cheap source of labour for farmers and factory ownersWho were the new wave of immigrants?- no longer only WASP immigrants - many immigrants Eastern European - were Catholic + jewish.Why did Americans feel differently to the new immigrants?- had different cultural + religious background - were poor + often illiterate - fear of radicalism + communismMany Americans were worried the immigrants would accept...Lower wages and take their jobs.What did wasp stand for?White Anglo Saxon ProtestantWhat ideas did Americans fear the immigrants brought with them?Radicalism + communismWhy were Americans so scared of communism in the new immigrants?Russian Revolution of 1917What laws did the USA pass in the 1920s to restrict immigration?- the emergency quota act - the national origins actWhat was the emergency quota act 1921?- limited immigration from outside the western world to 357,000 annually. - also tried to maintain the ethnic mix of the USA by controlling numbers of each country. - each country would have 3%What was the national origins act of 1924?- more restrictive ver of emergency quota act - designed to reduce southern and eastern immigrants - lowered the quota to 164,000 immigrants per year.By How much did the national origin act lower the number of immigrants?- lowered immigrants annually to 164,000 - each country can now send only 2% of their populationWhat was the immigration quota reduced to in 1929?150,000How did the new laws change immigration from 1914 compared to 1929?1.2 mil in 1914 280,000 in 1929Why was a border patrol set up in 1925?To prevent illegal immigrationWhy did many middle class and upper class Americans fear communism?Threatened to take away their wealth + powerWhy was the 1917 Russian Revolution so scary?- there was now a model of a communist government, an example for communists in other countries. - many communists begun to promote worldwide communism.Why were the US government particularly concerned with communism?- increasing numbers of eastern + southern immigrants. Threatened to bring communist and anarchist ideologies with themWhen was the first red scare and what caused it?1919 Caused by Russian Revolution and increase of immigration US Workers striking against small wages and few rightsHow many workers strikes were there in 1919? And how many workers were at the strike in Seattle?3,600 /100,000What was the result of these workers strikes in 1919 and the mail bombs?The first red scareHow did the strikes escalate?- 40 mail bombs addressed to important politicians + industrialists were found. - in June 8 cities experienced bomb attacksWhat was the general intelligence division and why was it created?- in reaction to the strikes of 1919. - used to spy on + arrest members of radical groups - took action in November 1919What was the general intelligence division's first action?Raided and searched the offices of Union russian workers.When and how did the general intelligence division activity peak?January 1920 - raids took place in 33 cities on any group believed to be radicalWho set up the general intelligence division and who was the head?- General Palmer set it up - J. Edgar Hoover was the leaderThe general intelligence division did the..Palmer raidsWhat were the short term consequences of the Palmer raids?- thousands of arrests made - around 600 radicals deported - prisoners kept in horrific conditions e.g extreme coldWhat were the long term consequences of the Palmer raids?- increased anti immigrant laws + attitudes - weakened trade Union movement as now associated with communismWhy did general Palmer start to stir up more panic after the raids?Thought it would help his presidency campaignWhat happened to general Palmer?Made false claims about communist violence. His reputation was destroyed.What happened on 15th april 1920?Two men committed an armed robbery in Braintree, Massachusetts. They shot the paymaster and a guard at a shoe factory and stole $15,776.51How much money did Sacco and Vanzetti steal?$15,776.51Where was the Sacco and Vanzetti crime committed?Braintree, Massachusetts.When was the Sacco and Vanzetti crime committed?3.00 pm. April 15th 1920When did two men show up to pick up the car used in the robbery?5th mayHow come the men weren't arrested when they arrived to pick up the car?Became nervous and left before police could arriveWhen were the two men arrested? And what were they carrying?Police caught up with them after they left the mechanics. Both were carrying guns.Who were the two men who were arrested?Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo VanzettiHow did Sacco and Vanzetti's political beliefs affect their arrest?- both were anarchists - they believed they were arrested unfairly due to their connection to the red scare bombings.What did Sacco and Vanzetti lie about?Their political beliefs Believed it would affect their trial + arrest - also the people they knew and their alibis on the day of the shootingWhat information was revealed about Sacco and Vanzetti that minimised the chances of them getting a fair trial?- their anarchist beliefs were discovered - most Americans were anti-immigrant and anti anarchist - therefore the jury was likely to be unsympatheticWhen was Sacco and Vanzetti's trial held?- May 1921What evidence suggested Sacco and Vanzetti were innocent?- the gun was tampered with in a later trial - Sacco's boss and character witnesses said they had a good reputation - both had alibisWhat evidence suggested Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty?- the ballistics expert believed the bullet was fired from Sacco's gun - had previous convictions for armed robbery - both men lied to the police - many eyewitnesses believed them guilty.What did the Jury of Sacco and Vanzetti's case decide?- Sacco and Vanzetti found guilty and sentenced to death by electrocution.Who was the Judge of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial?Judge ThayerWhy is Judge Thayer significant?Suggests the trial was biased as was a famed anti-anarchistWhen did the jury make their decision?14th July 1921What were the short term consequences of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial?- caused people to challenge the US's anti immigration attitude. - resulted in protestsWhat protests did the Sacco and Vanzetti trial lead to?Workers protested in 60 cities in Italy Mail bomb sent to the america embassy in ParisHow did the Sacco and Vanzetti trial unite immigrants in the US?- set up the Sacco and Vanzetti defence committee. Managed to raise $300,000 to support their defenceWhat did the Sacco and Vanzetti defence committee do?Raised $300,000 to support the defence of them.When were Sacco and Vanzetti executed?1927Americans were convinced Sacco and Vanzetti were found guilty because of... and not because of....Their nationality and political beliefs / not because of evidenceWhat happened in 1977?The governor of Massachusetts made 23rd of august the 'Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti memorial day'What was the 23rd of august?Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Memorial DayWhat was the atmosphere of 1918 like for black Americans?- deeply discriminatory - Jim Crow laws enforced segregationWhat was the aim of the Jim Crow laws?- to restrict the rights of African Americans - to segregate societyWhat were the Jim Crow laws?The laws segregating facilities and institutions for white and black Americans.How were African Americans' education opportunities limited by Jim Crow laws?- segregated institutions - limited availability + underfundedWhat stat shows how limited the availability of African American education was?- only 1% of African Americans of high school age, attended high schoolIn 1918, how supportive was the government of African American rights?Not at all. Did not protect them from violence or challenge the Jim Crow laws.How did the police react to lynchings?- rarely stopped them. Often took part.How did lynch mobs attack?Would kidnap a person, beat them and then hang or burn them.What is an example of a lynching in 1919?A black man was reported to be released by the police, had been arrested for rape. The police expected that a mob would kidnap and burn him.......... African Americans served in WW1 yet in 1919 .... Were lynched.400,000 / 76What was the Great migration?the mass movement of 1. 5 million African Americans from the rural South to the urban North.Why did the great migration occur?Wanted to escape racism and find employment in factories.How did those from the great migration live once in the north?- in ghettos. - most workers were unskilled and paid low wages.In ....... The black population rose from ........ in 1919 to ...... by ......Harlem / 50,000 / 165,000 / 1930What problems did black workers face once they moved to northern cities?- paid low wages - anger of white workersWhy were white workers angry with black workers?Now had to compete for jobsWhat did the anger of the white workers result in?Race riotsWhen did race riots peak and why?Post WW1 Soldiers returning from war, limited number of jobs.How did racism affect African Americans?- lack of job opportunities - lack of job security - poor living conditions and facilities - no right to voteHow did racism limit african Americans job opportunities?- lack of good education meant most black people were forced into unskilled factory work, farm labour or domestic serviceHow did racism deprive African Americans of job security?- were most likely to lose their jobs when the economy struggled - many black farmers lost their jobs in the 1920sHow did racism deprive African Americans of good living conditions and facilities?- houses in the south lacked basic plumbing + electricity - segregated facilities were of lower qualityHow did racism deprive African Americans of the right to vote?- southerners tried to stop black people from voting. - forced to take literacy tests where white people were exempt.When was the KKK formed?After the American civil waerHow violent were the KKK?Very. Reached such high levels that they were shut down by federal government in 1871What was the 1915 film : Birth of a nation?- highly popular film which encouraged white supremacyHow did Birth of a nation encourage white supremacy?- depicted the Klan as heroes and black people as evil.How was the KKK reformed and what was its core beliefs?Believed: - WASPs were a superior race of people - immigration should stop, as it threatened the power of the WASPs - the wasps should have strong Christian valuesWhy did the KKK target criminals?- believed they did not meet the standard of Christian values or share the same moral values -How was the KKK structured?- divided into Klaverns - each Klansmen reported to their local leader or Kleagle - therefore able to spread across the USAWhy did klansmen membership rise quickly in the 1920s?- Simmons appointed two public relations experts to help them - provided financial benefits to some membersWhat were the results of Simmons effort to grow membership?- by 1923, it had 5 million members spread across 4,000 chaptersWhat kind of people were Klansmen members?- white, urban middle classWho was William Simmons?- restarted the KKK and worked hard to boost its membership.What methods did the Klan use to persecute black people and uphold white supremacy?- used violence against their targets - protested against politicians they disagreed with - boycotted businesses they disagreed with - controlled Education. Used their influence to stop the evolution of teaching.How much power did the KKK have at its height in the 1920s?- had some very powerful members - had influence over the legal systemWhat are examples of powerful members of the KKK?Had senators, governors or mayorsHow did the KKK have influence over the legal system?- some judges + police officers were Klansmen or sympathetic to the KKK - therefore Klansmen rarely received legal punishmentThe Klan's power began to decline after...1925Why did KKK membership decline after 1925?- an influential state leader was found guilty of rape and murder of a young woman. - damaged the reputation of the KlanBy 1929 there were only ......... members of the klan.200,000Most Americans were......ProtestantWhat did Protestant ideologies divide into?Fundamentalists and ModernistsWhat did Fundamentalists believe?the Bible should be taken literally + everything actually happened - had conservative views + disliked following latest trendsWhere were fundamentalists most influential?- in the rural + small town communities of the Bible beltWhat was the Bible Belt?- a informal region in the southern + western states where Christian fundamentalist believes were popular.What did modernists believe?As a result of modern discoveries, the Bible had to be reinterpreted.What did modernists believe about Darwinism?- accepted it - still believed god was behind the evolutionary processWhat did the anti-evolution league campaign?- against the teaching of DarwinismWhat did the anti-evolution league do in 1925?- campaign succeeded in Tennessee - resulted in passing of the Butler actWhat was the butler act?Made it illegal to teach theory of evolution in schools in Tennessee.What was the punishment for teaching the evolutionary theory?Fined $500What did John Scopes do?He taught the theory of evolution in classes and was arrested for it.When was John Scopes trial?10th July 1925Who was the prosecutor in the Scopes Trial?William Jennings Bryan a popular fundamentalist who had campaigned for the anti evolution lawWho defended John Scopes?Clarence DarrowWhat religion was Darrow?AgnosticHow did Darrow challenge the Butler act in Scopes trial?- turned the trial into a debate of fundamentalist ideas like creationism v modernist ones: the theory of evolutionWhat did Darrow famously request Bryan do?- asked whether Jonah was swallowed by the whale + how many days did it take god to create the earth. - challenged basic ideas of fundamentalism - attacked the BibleWhat was the result of the monkey trial?- prosecutor was Protestant. Did not support modernist ideas. Decided Scopes was still guilty. - jury agreed scopes was guilty + was fined $100For how long did the Butler act remain in force?Till 1967What progress was made by the monkey trial?- gave the religious debate lots of attention - damaged the reputation of fundamentalism. Was now mocked. - eventually resulted in change of ideologies.When was the eighteenth amendment introduced?- 1919What was the eighteenth amendment?- banned the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholWhat was the Volstead act?the law that officially enforced ProhibitionWhat was the problem with the prohibition law?Lack of enforcement + loopholes in law. Caused government to earn less income. Many police officers engaged in bribery or drinking.What groups fought for the prohibition law?- Woman's Christian temperance Union - the Anti-Saloon leagueWhat did temperance groups argue?- alcohol damaged society - led to sinful behaviour - weakened the economy - created problems for a country at warHow did temperance groups believe alcohol damaged domestic life?Believed alcohol consumption affected family life as led to unemployment, wages being wasted in a bar and domestic violence.What did religious groups believed alcohol did?Was responsible for sinHow did temperance groups believe alcohol created problems for a country at war?- focus on alcohol manufacturing rather than grainIn what ways was prohibition a success?- alcohol consumption dropped + American health improved.By how much did the number of deaths from liver disease fall due to prohibition?- fell from 29.5 per 100,000 in 1911 to 10.7 in 1929How popular was prohibition?Study suggests somewhat popular. 40% of people were in favour of enforcing it.Which parts of the economy was effected by prohibition?- breweries who manufactured effected - farmers who supplied effected - saloons who sold affected Therefore thousands of Americans lost their jobs.What were the effects of prohibition?- loss of jobs, therefore less to spend on leisure - government lost income due to loss of taxes on alcohol.One anti prohibition group estimated the governments loss of income due to prohibition was....$11 billion by 1931What were the enforcement problems with prohibition?- turned regular Americans into criminalsHow did people attempt to get alcohol during prohibition?- smuggled drinks across borders - made their own moonshine - visited speakeasies to purchase illegal drinksWhat was moonshine?Illegally homemade alcoholWhat were the consequences of moonshine?- many peoples health was endangered and they suffered from poorly made moonshineIn NYC ....... People died from ........... over 4 days.34 / wood alcohol poisoningWhat was set up to help enforcement problems?An enforcement divisionHow much money was the enforcement division given?$2 millionHow was prohibition enforcement made more difficult?5 states refused to enforce prohibition Many American juries refused to convict law breakersWhat stat shows how bad prohibition conviction and enforcement was?- Out of 6,904 cases between 1921 and 1924 in NY only 20 people were convicted.Between 1921 and 1924 in NY out of ....... Cases only .... Were convicted.6,904 / 20Prohibition provided an opportunity for.... To grow.Organised crimeHow were gangs involved in prohibition?- smuggled and sold alcohol - ran gambling dens and brothels - made local businesses pay protection moneyWhere was Al Capone based?In ChicagoBy the time Capone was...... his boss had retired and he......25 / took control of the gangAt the height of his power how much money did Capone earn?$105 million annuallyWhy did Capone have to use extreme violence?- to protect his territory from competing gangsWhat is an example of Capone's violence?- on Valentine's Day 1929, Capone's men tried to kill Bugs Moran - Moran escaped but seven of his men were lined up and shot dead,Who was Bugs Moran?Leader of a rival gang to CaponeWho was Eliot Ness?A prohibition agent. Leader of the untouchables. Targeted Capone.What did the untouchables do?Raided warehouses + seized illegal alcoholWhat led to Capone's arrest in 1931?Internal Revenue Service discovered he had $200,000 of unpaid federal income tax.What did the Internal Revenue Service do?Uncovered that Capone had $200,000 of unpaid federal income tax. Arrested him in 1931How did gangs effect major cities in the US?- were extremely violent - controlled local politicians - turned ordinary citizens into criminalsBy November 1924, how many gang related murders were there in Chicago?200What is an example of gangs controlling local politicians?- Big Bill Thompson was re elected mayor of Chicago in 1927 because of his support from gangsters.Residents of Chicago's south side helped to illegal manufacture ....... Galleons of alcohol per day.200How did gangsters make prohibition ineffective?- they bribed low paid prohibition agents preventing them from enforcing the lawWhat were the effects of gang bribery?- in 1929 alcohol consumption was back to 70% of irs 1914 level - NYC was home to over 32,000 speakeasiesIn 1929 how many speakeasies where there in New York?32,000When was prohibition ended?1933