Global systems (

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***Unequal flows of people:
- What do unequal flows of people result in

- What is the general trend of movement of people
- Other reasons for flows of people
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Terms in this set (12)
- Usually not the poorest in society
- Money need to finance visas, transport and living expenses in the destination country
- Sole admittance of people with certain skills to enter the country= migrants usually reasonably well educated

- Developed nation citizens find it easier
- 2017- UK citizens travel to 173 countries without visa; Afghanistan citizens could only travel to 24
- Immigrants can create economic growth; do jobs that country's citizens can't e.g skilled jobs like engineering or don't want to do e.g dangerous jobs like mining

- Migrants send money back to their families/home communities
- Increase flow of capital into less developed economies= economic growth in home country (local people can afford to spend more= local industries boosted)
- Less developed countries experience 'brain drain' (skilled people leave and take their knowledge with them)
- Reinforces existing inequalities

- Low-skilled migrants happy to work for less than low-skilled locals
- Companies may therefore depress wages locally
- Conflict between local and migrant factions

- Migrant workers operate in dangerous conditions for little money e.g Qatar, several thousand migrants died building facilities for 2022 World Cup
- Foreign aid can create dependency, giving govts little incentive to improve their own countries
- FDI can force out local businesses, because foreign companies with superior capital an technology make products more efficiently

- Foreign aid can fall into hands of armed groups, funding conflict
- FDI can create conflict between foreign companies and local people e.g FDI in agriculture= peasant farmers evicted to create larger plantations

- Companies may pressure govts of less developed countries to pass laws which make investment cheaper e.g cutting environmental regulation/weakening laws on working conditions
- Developed countries

- Most national govts took responsibility for providing welfare for citizens and controlling imports through trade barriers to protect national industries

- Developing nations believed economy operated better in absence of state intervention
- Maximum economic growth would only occur if trade barriers removed, state-owned companies privatised and govt spending cut (neo-liberalism)
- Neo-liberalism has origins in developed countries, and concentrates on wealth in the hands of the few e.g large, wealthy businesses in developed countries

- If private companies and free trade in less developed countries is threatened by decisions of the country's govt, developed countries may believe their intervention is justified= conflict

- Govts and TNCs may argue free trade and privatisation are best ways to help countries develop, and that this justifies poor working conditions and environmental degradation in the less developed country
***Unequal flows of technology: - Describe unequal flows of technology - Impact of the concentration of technology in particular places; example- Mainly flows from developed to less developed countries - Rapid innovation that can help people globally - Technology companies in Silicon Valley, US- developed innovations in communications and healthcareNegatives: - How can unequal flows of technology create inequalities; give example - How can unequal flows of technology create conflicts and injustice- Developed countries can afford latest technology, whereas less developed can't - Countries with latest technology can make products more cheaply and have better access to information and services due to better communications infrastructure - e.g 2016- 97% Netherlands citizens had interest access, compared to around 20% in Myanmar= developed countries have an advantage - Repressive govts of less developed countries used weapons technology self to them by developed countries to stop protests from their own people