USA Chapter 5: The opposition to the New Deal

Why was the Supreme Court a problem for the new deal?
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How many people voted for the republicans in the 1936 election?16 million. Shows people were unsure + divided about New deal.For what reasons did the Republicans discredit the agencies?Believed they were communist. Believed they would make people lazy + dependant on the government for help.What was the Republican objection to the new deal?- claimed it took away American self sufficiency. - claimed it wasted a lot of money, with the WPA paying people to do unnecessary jobs.What kinds of people did not support the new deal?- republicans - business owners - Republican majority Supreme Court - the rich - people who believed it was not doing enough.Why did Business owners not support the new deal?- did not like government interference - angry that Roosevelt supported trade unions + raising wages. - criticised rules of NRA + other agencies.What group did business owners form to oppose the new deal?The Liberty league.Why did wealthy Americans oppose the New deal?- disliked paying higher taxes to pay for the work of the New deal agencies. - Roosevelt's policies took away some of their power.How did Roosevelt react to the Supreme courts ruling on the agencies?- determined to push the agencies. - asked Congress to give him the power to appoint six new judges to the Court.Why did Roosevelt's attempt of appointing new judges to the Supreme Court fail?People were astonished by his proposal. Accused him of wanting to rule a dictatorship. Most democrats did not support him in this. There was overwhelming opposition from congress + they rejected it.Did Roosevelt achieve success in his plans for new judges in the end?Yes. Some judges retired voluntarily soon after. The new judges were less hostile to the new deal.How did the New judges react towards the new deal?- most of the NRA was accepted in court. - in 1937, the court reviewed the Wagner act and social security act and judged them as constitutional.What stat shows the new deal was not doing enough?In 1936 there were still 9 million unemployed in the USA.By how much did Roosevelt improve unemployment?- in 4 years had reduced unemployment by 4 million.What were the limits of the new deal?- many groups still unemployed and in poverty. E.g the old and farmers. - used a lot of money. - many people opposed with how much the government was interfering.When did the old receive pensions?1940.Who were three of Roosevelt's main critics?- Huey Long - Doctor Townsend - Father CoughlinWhen was Huey Long elected Governor of Louisiana?In 1928.What did Huey Long promise to win become governor?- promised to increase taxes for the rich + use the money to build more roads, hospitals + schools.How did Huey Long run Louisiana?With bribery and corruptionHow did Huey long feel about the new deal?Supported it at first but by 1934, attacked it for not doing enough for the poor.What was the 'share our wealth' scheme?- Huey long proposed all personal fortunes of over $5 million to be confiscated + shared out. - said every American family would be given between $4000 and $5000.What did Huey Long promise alongside the 'share our wealth' program?- a minimum wage, houses for war veterans, pensions and completely free education.How popular was Huey Long?- popular amongst whites in Louisiana. - however had many opponents + was assassinated in 1935.What did Doctor Francis Townsend propose?- everyone over the age of 60 should get a pension of $200 a month if they spent the money during the month + gave up their jobs.Why did Townsend propose this pension idea?- thought it would create jobs for young people - create a demand for goods + help the neglected elderly.How popular was Townsend's idea?Many older people liked it. 7000 Townsend clubs sprang up across the USA.Father Coughlin was a priest who broadcasted his ideas on radio to..... on....40 million Americans / Sunday evenings.What church was Father Coughlin'sSt Therese, the Little flower of Jesus.What was Father Coughlin's opinion of Roosevelt?- praised him at the beginning of the New deal. - later accused him of failing to tackle problems of the poor.What did Coughlin do in response to the limitations of the new deal?Set up the National Union for social justice.How successful was Father Coughlin?His group attracted millions of members however, his ideas were confused + his audience had faded away by 1940.How did Republicans oppose the new deal?Created a coalition. With support, they had power to defeat any new measures that Roosepevelt tried to pass.What was the effect of Republican opposition?The 1938 elections to congress brought the new deal to a stop.What is the word for self reliance?Laissez-faire.What other group tried to oppose Roosevelt?The Chamber of Commerce. Openly criticised new deal legislation in 1935How much did the Liberty league spend on opposition?$1 million.How did the Liberty league struggle?- few people were recruited - it was unpopular - in 1937 Supreme Court began to support the new deslWhich people argued the new deal did not do enough?- Huey Long - Father Coughlin - Dr Francis Townsend - Upton SinclairWhat did Huey Long state about the social security act?- did not reduce gap between rich and poorWhat did Huey long state about the NRA and AAA?- the AAA left poor tenant farmers homeless - The NRA was controlled by big businesses.How many Americans joined the share our wealth program?8 millionWhat was the problem with share our wealth?Not enough rich people to fund it.When did the new deal end?1939What were the aims of the new deal?Relief, Recovery, ReformBy 1939 how did the new deal affect unemployment?Caused it to fall from 12.8 million in 1933 to 9.5 million in 1939What were the failures of the new deal?- farming = tenant farmers homeless + in poverty - industry = NRA codes were ignored by many businesses - banking = 106 banks that were given funding, still closed.What percent was unemployment in 1939 compared to 1929?17.2 as opposed to 3.2What were the achievements of Roosevelt's work relief programs?- WPA employed 8 million people - built new parks, roads and schools.What were the shortcomings of Roosevelt's work relief programs?- projects relied heavily on government spending - provided work for only about 40% of those in needWhat did the new deal achieve when working with the poor?- 35% of the population received relief from the government - social security act provided insurance to the unemployedWhat were the failures of the new deal for the poor?- government did not spend enough on relief - relief varied from state to state - the poor needed social housing but the government built little.Why did the new deal fail?Relied heavily on government spending.In which ways did the new deal reform the US?- social security - treatment of industrial workers - living conditions of farmers - financial regulationsHow did social security help reform?- had the federal government provide help to families, the elderly, the unemployed and the disabledHow did the new deal reform the industry?- unions were recognised. Minimum wages were introduced. Working hours limited.How did the new deal reform living conditions for farmers?- many families were provided with electricity - had their land improved and were given financial help to keep it.How did Roosevelt reform the banks?- banking system was generalised and greater controls were placed on the stock market.What were the limits to the social security system?- excluded many people e.g farmers and domestic workers - payments were also small. Therefore gap between rich and poor was not reduced.By 1940 the economic divide was ....... As in 1930The sameWhat were the achievements of women in the new deal?- more influence in political due to Eleanor Roosevelt's work - provided with specific help from WPA - grants provided for mothers with dependant children.What were the shortcomings of women by 1940?- paid less than men - number of women in professional work fell - alphabet agencies focused on unemployed men.In 1937, how much less were women paid than men?Only earned half a man's wage.The CCC created...... jobs for men but only ..... for women annually.2.5 Million / 5,000What were the achievements of Black people by the end of the New deal?- a Black cabinet gave black people more political power - 30% of black families received relief - early signs of end of segregation.What were the limitations of black people by the end of the new deal?- AAA forced black tenants off farm land - NRA forced many black peoples to lose their jobs - relief payments were lower if you were black - most workers had no access to social security.How did the New deal help native Americans?- the Indian recognition act restored millions of acres of land to tribes - given a chance to vote and govern themselves - recognised the right of Native American women to vote.The Indian recognition act restored ....... acres of land back to tribes.7.4 millionHow were native Americans limited by the new deal?- most were still very poor - reliance upon agencies which backfired when they closed down.How did the Second World War help the American economy?- lend lease act allowed US to to lend war supplies to any country under Nazi attack. Created a large number of jobs in industry and agricultureBy How much did Second World War preparations decrease unemployment?- from 9.5 mil in 1939 to 4.4 in 1941How did war preparations affect farming incomes?- rose by 50% between 1939 and 1941In the first three years of war, exports grew by.....Over 70%Ultimately the Second World War....Made long term recovery possible