5 Solids, liquids and gases - iGCSE Physics Edexcel

Term
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5.1 use the following units: degree Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K), joule (J), kilogram (kg), kilogram/metre3 (kg/m3 ), metre (m), metre2 (m2 ), metre3 (m3 ), metre/second (m/s), metre/second2 (m/s2 ), newton (N) and pascal (Pa)
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Terms in this set (21)
The density of an object can be found by measuring the mass and volume and applying the formula above to calculate the density
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For a regular object use a ruler to measure the lengths needed to determine the volume.

For an irregular object submerge it in water and measure the displaced volume.

Measure the mass of either type of object using a measuring balance.
A substance must absorb heat energy so that it can melt or boil. The temperature of the substance does not change during melting, boiling or freezing, even though energy is still being transferred.

At higher temperatures particles have more energy. Some of this energy can be transmitted to other particles that are at a lower temperature. For example, in the gas state, when a fast moving particle collides with a slower moving particle, it transfers some of it's energy to the slower moving particle, increasing the speed of that particle.
MELTING:
- Particles gain kinetic energy and begin to vibrate faster

- The structure is gradually weakened and this expands the solid until particles begin to break free of the structure

- although the particles are still loosely connected they are able to move around.

- As more and more energy is added the particles have enough Kinetic Energy to overcome the attractions between particles and become a liquid

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BOILING:
Particles gain kinetic energy and begin to vibrate faster

- The structure is gradually weakened and this expands the liquid until the most energetic particles begin to break free of the structure and leave the surface as a gas

-As more and more energy is added the particles have enough Kinetic Energy to overcome the attractions between particles and become a gas with negligible attractive forces between particles
- Fill a beaker with crushed ice and use a thermometer to measure the temperature.

- Use a Bunsen burner to heat the beaker of ice.

- Using a stopwatch, record the temperature and state of the water every 30 s.

- Continue until the water has been boiling for a minute.

- Plot a graph of temperature against time. You should see a constant temperature when the ice is melting, and the water is boiling.

(Graph will be drawn out in the opposite way to show steam being cooled)