Week Five: Quantitative Methods

What does an association claim state?

What is an association claim supported by?

What would happen if one of these variables is manipulated?
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An association claim states that two variables are linked, one does not cause the other.

Association claims are supported by correlational studies, in which both variables are measured in a set of participants.

If either of the variables is manipulated, the study is an experiment, which could potentially support a casual claim.
For a scatterplot, the correlation coefficient r can be used to describe the relationship.

For a bar graph, the difference between the two groups is used to describe the relationship.

Regardless of whether the association is analysed with scatterplots or bar graphs, if both variables are measured, the study is correlational.
While it not necessary to interrogate internal validity for an association claim because it does not make a causal statement, it can be tempting to assume causality from a correlational study.

No, they may show covariance but do not usually satisfy temporal precedence, and cannot establish internal validity.
A bivariate correlation, or bivariate association, is an association that involves exactly two variables.

1. Positive
2. Negative.
3. Zero

To investigate associations, researchers need to measure the first variable and the second variable in the same group of people.

They use graphs and simple statistics to describe the type of relationship the variables have with each other.