Week 8: Programme Planning and Intervention Development

Briefly describe the process behind Programme Planning and Intervention Development?
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- Set a key outcome (a clear, measurable, long-term vision).

- Identify behavioural objectives linked to the key outcome.

- Identify target constructs and their influence on the behavioural objectives.

- Design and develop intervention content to address constructs.

- Evaluate effectiveness of interventions.

- Refine interventions and behaviour change model, when needed - depending on results
- What is your mission statement?

- What are your capabilities and capacities?

- Who needs to be involved?

- What do you already know?

- What do you need to know?

- Groups - SWOT analysis - (strength weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.)

- Individuals - key informants - help you get specialised information.

-Review results and set priorities.

By the end of this process, you should be able to come up with a mission statement and your key outcomes.
Impact theory + Process Theory = Programme Theory.

Impact theory - why the intervention content will lead to the intended outcomes.

- Seeks to articulate the theoretical and physical boundaries of the programme.

- Defines the hypothesised underlying assumptions that lead to the key outcomes.

- Defines the operative rational for selecting and sequencing the activities, events and resources and the intervention that lead to the key outcomes.
KO - Key Outcome.
BO - Behavioural Objective
TC - Target Construct

KO = Behavioural Change


Step 1: Everything is hinging on your key outcome.

-Effectively identifying relevant factors that lead to a behaviour change.

Step 2:
- Once the appropriate target construct has been selected, the next step is to determine how to intervene to influence the construct.
1. Intervention Content
2. Target Construct
3. Behavioural Objective
4. Intervention Key outcomes.

Target constructs - the specific factors (EG skills, knowledge, beliefs ect...) that lead to a behavioural objective.

Behavioural Objectives - the behaviours proximal to the key outcomes, the behaviours we are trying to create via intervention.

Intervention Key Outcomes - the goals behind the entire project; the reason we are doing this project.

You work backward, identifying the behaviour you want to change, looking at the objective for this behaviour, what creates this behaviour (TC) before looking at your intervention content.
Intervention content is developed to correspond specifically to a target construct.

If one selected target construct is seat belt use, then we need to develop intervention content to build that skill - interactive game to enforce putting on a seat belt.

Yes, it does not matter how interesting the interventions are, if they do not link to a specific target construct that has met those 3 criteria, you must let it pass.
Step 1:

-Effectively identifying and influencing relevant factors (from particular skills, knowledge, beliefs) that lead to behaviour change.
-The path to KO from BO from TC.

Step 2:

-Once the appropriate target construct has been selected, the next step is to determine how to intervene to influence the construct
-The path to the TC from the selected Intervention Content (IC)
When creating a programme impact theory, how strict should the identification of BOs be? What would the next steps be (This is step 2)?Explicitly identify the behavioural objectives to be targeted via the intervention content and determine how they should be targeted. - Identify target populations. - Select level(s) of intervention. - Select Modalities of Intervention - Develop Intervention ComponentsWhat are the primary and secondary target populations? What does selecting levels of intervention mean? However, what is the ultimate goal to remember when selecting levels of intervention? What does it mean to select modalities of intervention?Primary: the people whose behaviour the intervention is supposed to change. Secondary: other populations may need to be targeted for the members of the target population to change. Many levels of intervention - intervene on both the family/ community/ and individual. Ultimate goal - to influence specific individuals in the primary target populations. Modalities: format of intervention delivery - E.G web-based learning, novel curriculum.What should your developed intervention components contain? What should you have explicitly defined?Contain content that is specifically related to one or more Target Constructs tied to Behavioural Objectives outlines in the Programme Theory. SMART goals (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound) that relate to TOs - be really clear on what the intervention is doing.Should developing interventions be creative? What is the purpose of the impact evaluation? What does the impact evaluation of the programme impact theory assess? What should we look at when evaluating the intervention? In summary, what oder does programme theory and intervention development operate in?Developing intervention takes creativity, but should also be linked to specific behaviours - based on theory. Purpose = to evaluate the programme impact theory. Are the TOs related to one another and the behavioural objectives as expected? Evaluating the Intervention: -Did intervening on the selected TCs in the hypothesised manner in fact change the BOs in the expected direction? -It may take some time for the KOs to be affected. IC = TC = BO = KOHow is programme theory difference from a psychological theory? What type of programme should you be weary of? When programmes or interventions do not work, what is normally the reason?Psychological theories of behavioural change exist whether you are intervening on them. Programme Theory - specifically the intervention part. You should be weary of a theory which has no underlying theory of behavioural change associated with it - should move on. They normally lack association with psychological or behavioural problems.What are the pros and cons of social cognitive theory? What is self-efficacy? Self-efficacy is a critical concept of social cognitive theory (SCT), what does it look at? Provide examples?Pros - the theory is clear and on average if the most effective because it is comprehensible. Cons - it is limited because it rests of behavioural intentions. -Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviours necessary to produce specific performance attainments. -Looks at the perceived ability to achieve an outcome through one's own actions. -Looks at people's judgements of their capabilities to perform a specific behaviour. -A young driver's perceptions about their ability to wear a seat belt very time they drive. -A young driver's perceptions about facilitators and barriers to this behaviour.How does self-efficacy influences behaviour? Choice? Effort? Perseverance? Resilience? What does this make self-efficacy in relation to intervention studies?Choice: individuals tend to select tasks and activities in which they feel competent and confidant and avoid those in which they do not. Effort: self-efficacy beliefs help determine how much effort people will expend on an activity. Perseverance: self-efficacy beliefs help determine how long people will persevere when confronting obstacles. Resilience: Self-efficacy beliefs help determine how resilient people will be in the face of adverse situations. Self-efficacy is a targeted construct in intervention studies.How are self-efficacy beliefs created, and how is learning accomplished? Using the seatbelt example, how can self-efficacy beliefs be created and learning accomplished? Regarding: Previous performance or experience. Observational learning? Social Persuasion Somatic and Emotional StatesSelf-efficacy beliefs can be enhanced through intervention. Previous Performance of Experience: -When practicing driving, wear seat belt every time. -Skill and ability - building through practice. Observational Learning: -Observe others driving and wearing a seat belt every time. -Parental, sibling, and other modelling of seat belt use. -Peers and celebrities in media depicted as wearing seat belts. Social Persuasion: -Exposure to messages that persuade teen drivers to wear seat belts every time (messages that correspond to TO) -Social support for seat belt use by other drivers in teen's lives. Somatic and Emotional States: -Prime positive mood and affect - as apposed to anxiety and stress.What does the integrative model of behaviour change specify? What is the best predictor of behaviour? Not all behaviour is predicted by behavioural intention?Specifies the factors that predict and influence behaviour (intentions, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy, perceived behavioural control and their underlying beliefs) and how to measure these. Behavioural intention is the best predictor of behaviour. (I plan to wear a seat belt every time i drive in the next 6 months - from extremely likely to extremely unlikely). Not all behaviour is predicted by behavioural intention - behaviour done at heightened emotions would not work for this.What determines an individuals behavioural intention? In turn, what does the behavioural intention predict? Summarise the process?An individuals ATTITUDE towards performing a particular behaviour and SUBJECTIVE NORMS about performing a particular behaviour determine an individual's behavioural intention. Behavioural intention in turn predicts behaviour. Attitudes and Subjective Norms = Behavioural Intention.Behavioural Intention = behaviour.What is an attitude? What is an attitude determined by? Describe behavioural belief strength? And outcome expectancies? How does behavioural beliefs/ outcome expectancies link to attitudes? What does this in turn link to?Attitudes - a person's overall evaluation of their performing of the behaviour in question. Attitude is determined by one's behavioural beliefs, also called outcome expectancies, about performing a particular behaviour. Behavioural belief strength = the likelihood of outcome from behaviour. Outcome Expectancies = how good or bad the outcome would be. Behavioural Beliefs/ Outcome Expectancies = Attitudes = Behavioural Intention = Behaviour.What is a subjective norm? What is a subjective norm determined by? What is normative belief strength? How does normative belief strength link to subjective norm? And what does this in turn link to?Subjective Norm = importance of others' approval/ disapproval of their respondents' behaviour/ your perception of what others want you to do. Subjective norm = determined by one's subjective normative beliefs about performing a particular behaviour. Normative belief strength = perception of behaviour by relevant referent individuals (parents & friends) and motivation to comply with the opinions of these individuals. Subjective Normative Belief Strength = Subjective Norms = Behavioural Intention = Behaviour.Describe these additional norms in integrative model from social norms theory? Descriptive norms? What is a typical measurement for descriptive norms? Perceived description norm? What is a typical measurement for perceived description norms?Descriptive norms - generally, what others are doing/ the extent to which others are actually engaging in a specific behaviour. Observational measurements. Perceived descriptive norm - your perception of how many others (peers, friends) are engaging in a specific behaviour. Self-report measurements.What does Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action also include as a predictor of behavioural intentions and subsequently behaviour? What is PBC? What is this very similar, if not the same as? Summaries the possible predictors of behaviour intention and thereby behaviour so far?Perceived Behavioural control (PBC) PBC - the beliefs a person holds about their ability to perform a particular behaviour. Conceptually very similar if not the same as self-efficacy (SE) Attitudes/ Subjective Norms/ Perceived Behavioural Control II Behavioural Intention II BehaviourHow is PBC normally assessed? What predicts perceived behavioural controls? Summarise what predicts attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control? What do these in turn all predict, and consequently ultimately predict?PBC - participants are usually asked to rate the extent to which they have the ability to perform the behaviour and how much the behaviour is under their control. Control beliefs - barriers or facilitators. Behavioural Beliefs = Attitudes. Subjective Normative Beliefs = Subjective Norms. Control Beliefs = Perceived Behavioural Control. All of the above predict Behavioural Intention, and therefore Behaviour. Behavioural Intention = Behaviour.What external variables impact behavioural beliefs? What external variables impact subjective and descriptive normative beliefs? What external variables impact efficacy and control beliefs?-Demographic variables -Culture Personality, moods, and emotions. -Exposure to Interventions -Attitudes toward targets, e.g stereotypes -Other individual difference variables (e.g, sensation seeking).Why is the Integrative Model of Behaviour Change useful regarding the development of interventions?It reveals the process of the behaviour of a potential target population. It is critical to understand what the contextual system is before you develop your intervention - so the psychological theory and programme theory can work together.What is elicitation research techniques? How might you conduct the elicitation research process? What are the responses used for? What do modal salient beliefs then provide?Elicitation techniques are a category of research tasks that use visual, verbal, or written stimuli to encourage participants to talk about their ideas. Elicitation Research process -Pilot work is required to identify accessible behavioural, normative, and control beliefs. -Respondents are given a description of the behaviour and are asked a series of questions. The responses are used: -To identify personal salient beliefs: the unique beliefs of each research participants. -To construct a list of modal salient beliefs: a list of the most commonly held beliefs in the research population. -Modal salient beliefs then provide the basis for constructing a standard questionnaire. -This questionnaire is used in the main study and is generally pre-tested first on a smaller sample.How are behavioural outcomes elicited, in elicitation research? How are a list of accessible factors generated in elicitation research? What does elicitation research create, and then what happens?To elicit behavioural outcomes, participants are given a few minutes to list their thoughts in response to a set of questions. To generate a list of accessible factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behaviour, a set of questions are asked. You start with elicitation research and use this to create your surveys, pre-test those surveys and then those are deployed in collaboration with your intervention development.What are common questions asked in programme evaluation?- What is the scope of the problem. - Where is the problem located? - Who does it effect and how many? - How does the programme affect them? - What is it about this programme that requires something to address it and how should we evaluate the programme.What is the purpose of the process evaluation? What is the outcome evaluation?To determine if the process was implemented as intended - if it wasn't there is not much point in conducting your outcome evaluation. The outcome evaluation - the assessment of the relationships of the outcomes as well as the overall impact of the programme.What should you do in the programme evaluation? If your evaluation shows that the programme was implemented as it was supposed to but there wasn't an impact then what do you have to determine? What might it mean if the intervention had short-term outcomes, but did not carry on further than that? What might you do in this instance?Justify conclusions - your conclusions should be grounded in data, not go beyond the data, and align with the values of the stake holder. You have to determine if there was a theory failure - if the underlying logic was faulty. The intervention was too weak = had a positive effect on short term outcomes but was too weak to carry onto your medium or long-term outcomes. -Recommend booster programmes or other avenues to strengthen the potency of the intervention. -Potentially use more sensitive measures to detect smaller effect sizes.What is the distinction between intervention development and evaluation and programme development?Intervention development - more basic and controlled and when it does move to implementation it can still have a more focused delivery. Evaluation and Programme Development - typically more applied in nature and is often fairly complex - lots of interaction with context and delivery.Professionally you might find yourself in a role where you need to select from pre-evaluated programmes that have some evidence behind them to implement in your place of work. There are lots of bad programmes out there, so what might you need to look out for?- The quality of the intervention and design - does it connect with theory, how strong was the study which evaluated it in the first place, was this several studies? - Because most studies were done with specific studies, your population might not have been evaluated for your target population, so you might need to consider if the programme is culturally appropriate for you and if it needs to be adapted. - If you do make any adaptions how are you going to make sure they haven't compromised the effectiveness of your programme.Why not just development intervention programmes from the beginning?- You should never reinvent the wheel if you do not have to - as this is a huge undertaking. - Many in organisations underestimates what it takes in developing a successful intervention or successful programme. -Do not completely understand the skills, funds, and resources needed for effective evaluation.Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on Youths - what went wrong in this study?The campaign was widely distributed, pointing towards a theory failure. - Authorised hypothesised that the advertisement didn't connect with the target population - the intervention content was flawed in its design. Was not valuable as a target construct and did not meet the criteria. - Campaign implied weed was common and other teens in general would approve of its use - factors for initiation - another way of saying that there was so much exposure to the media campaign - it created this perception that weed was something a lot of children did and was okay.Describe a campaign that was successful? Why Was it successful?Truth Campaign - young people's desire for autonomy. - Truth campaign was higher productive value - capitalised on the idea that young people don't want to be exploited by big companies to make money. - Unwittingly being used by tobacco companies - don't let yourself be used in this way/ work for free. - Positioning not smoking as an act of rebellion - very positive messages. - This campaign was quite successful - media, high value, placement during big, televised events.What should you be weary of in intervention development?- Do not over promise and under deliver - can take a while for a new programme to get on its feet. - May take a year or two to get implementation. - You do not want to say it will have a bigger impact than it can. - Programmes exist in contexts and any outcome will be influenced by many factors and realistically you are only going to be able to address a few. - Be realistic in how big your effect size will be. - Many programmes look like they didn't achieve their goals, but it could be that their goals were too big to begin with.