This is the study of crimes and criminals, and a particular field that attempt to build theories that explain why crimes occur and test those theories by observing behavior.
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He was concern with the achieving "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," and his work was governed by "utilitarian principlesJeremy BenthanHe postulates the theory of "born criminal," which states that criminals are a lower of life, nearer to the apelike ancestors than non-criminals in traits and disposition.Cesare LombrosoHe advocates conventional punishments and even the death penalty for individuals assumed would never fit to live the societyEnrico FerriHe rejects the doctrine of "free will" and supported the position that the only way to understand crime was to study it by scientific methods.Rafael GarofaloTracing the roots of criminal behavior not to physical features but to their psychological equivalents, are called by Garofalo, as what?moral anomaliesHis arguments is that criminals were normal people who learned crime just as others learned legitimate trades, and he formulated this theory in terms of laws of imitation.Gabriel TardeThey want to know why and how things go wrong; they want to apply the scientific methods of research to the study of social problem and their solution.criminologistsHe is a British criminologists who records the facial and other measurements of several thousands criminals and non-criminals, and concluded that Lombroso's findings on biological criminal type had no adequate scientific support.Charles GoringIt emphasizes that traits are transmitted from parents to offspring.genetic factorsIt may identify specific gene patterns that are associated with pre-dispositions toward criminal behaviordeoxyribonucleic acid test