Psychology - Chapter 8

What type of development is characterized by improved capacity to process information and understand the world due to advancing age and experience?
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What do psychologists mean when they talk about RESILIENCE?A person's ability to adapt to challenges or recover from difficultyThree domains of development1. Physical 2. Cognitive 3. SocioemotionalFrom ages 3 to 6, the most rapid growth takes place in which areas of the brainFrontal LobesAccording to Piaget, the infant in the sensorimotor stage constructs a n understanding of the world by coordination ___- experiences with ____- actions1. Sensory experiences 2. Physical ActionsAccording to Piaget, ___ is a belief that objects continue to possess physical attributes (such as volume) despite superficial changes.ConservationMadeleine is a 16 year old. She is able to think somewhat like a scientist, devising plans to solve problems and testing solutions. Which of Piaget's stages is Madeleine most likely in?Formal OperationalWhich of the following refers to an individual's behavioral style and characteristic ways of responding?TemperamentChess and Thomas (1977) identify 3 basic types or clusters of temperament, what are these three?1. Easy Child 2. Difficult child 3. Slow to Warm up childErikson's first 4 childhood stages of socioemotinal development1. Trust vs. Mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Guilt 3. Intiative vs. Guilt 4. Industry vs. InferiorityWhich of the following statements are correct regarding Erikson's trust vs. mistrust stage?- It occurs during the first year and a half of life - The outcome depends whether the infants caretakers meet its needJoe is a 2.5 years old and is developing a strong sense of independence. According to Erikson's theory of socioemotional development, Joe is most likely in which stage of development?Autonomy vs Shame and guiltWhich of Erikson's stages occurs in childhood and involves more challenges and developing more purposeful behavior?Initiative vs GuiltWhich of the following is typical of Erikson's stage of industry vs. Inferiority?- It involves learning and achievement - It occurs from about age 6 to puberty - It. involves mastering intellectual (academic) skillsWhich of the following traits define the authoritative parent, according to Baumrind?- Places limit - encourages independence - extensive verbal give and take - warm and nurturing toward the childRamon is a freshman in college. he doesn't know what his major will be, and he has few ideas of what he wants to do in life. According to Erikson, he is in which of the following stages of development?Identity vs. Identity confusionClancey is in his 50s. He is active and fit and is helping his son remodel a house. He regularly babysits his 10 year old grandson. is wife enjoys helping their daugther in law decorate her home. Clancey and hhis wife are most likely in which stage of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?Generativity vs. StagnationWhich of the following are examples of cognitionSolving problems -being able to speak and understand words - imagining a future occupationwhich of the following is typical of the concrete operational stage according to Piaget?- Abstract thinking is not yet developed - Involves logical reasoing - ability to classify or divide thing into different sets and subsets -consider their interrelations -operational thinking -classification skillsWhich the following statements apply to a person's role in his or her own development?- It is an active role - it is an interactive roleDevelopment refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occursthroughout lifeWhich of the following are behaviors that would be displayed by a child who is classified as a "slow to warm up child", according to Chess and Thomas's work on temperament-Cautious with new experiences - Low activity level - Withdrawal from new situationsWhich of the following developments are typical of Erikson's stage of initiative vs guilt?- children begin to take responsibility for their own actions - children's social worlds widen6 year old Melanie is an enthusiastic child looking forward to first grade. According to Erikson's socioemotional development theory she is in the _____- versus ___- stage of developmentIndustry vs InferiorityAccording to Baumrind, authoritative parents are which of the following?-firm, set clear limits and reason with their children to explains things to themWhich of the following are true of erikson's stage of identity vs identity confusion?- career exploration is important -it occurs in adolescence - there is an exploration of rolesMany adolescent and adults do not reason as logically as Piaget proposed in which of his stage pop developmentFormal operationalWhich of the following are typical brain changes occur during infancy and childhood- uneeded brain cells are purged over time -synaptic connections that are used become stronger -the number of synaptic connections increases greatlyAccording to Erikson's theory of socioemotional development in which stage do children start forming friendships and taking greater responsibilities?Initiative vs Guilt