Environmental Biology - BI100 - Tropical Pacific Islands (Chapter 1-3)

The density of water
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Plate boundaries in which two plates are sliding past each other in opposite directions are _____.transform boundariesWhy was sea level lower during the Ice Ages than it is today?Large icebergs existed during the Ice Age and melted afterwards causing sea levels to rise higher today than it was beforeTyphoons can be enormously destructive, so the safest place to shelter from the storm would bethe leeward side of a high limestone islandMost environmental problems result fromComplex, interrelated problemsA simple linked feeding series such as grass-rabbit-wolf is known as a(n)Food chainAn ecosystem consists of______.A biological community and its physical environmentPhytoplankton are often_____.photosynthetic autotrophs, eaten by zooplankton, at the mercy of the currents, microscopicSheila Muniappan studied the soil and vegetation along a transect from the beach to the limestone forest at "Lost Pond." Which of the following statements about Lost Pond is correct?There were 6 different zones of vegetation, as the biotic and abiotic factors changed along the transect.The greatest abiotic challenge for organisms living in an estuary is_____changes in salinityTyphoons are powered byheat in the water, which drives convection currentsA(n) is a biological community (or several interacting communities) plus the environmental conditions in which they live.Ecosystem_____ _is the scientific theory that describes the movement of crustal plates of the lithospherePlate tectonicsThe _____________ characterizes the difference in atmospheric pressure between two regions of the Pacific Ocean and is used to determine the ENSO state for a particular period.Southern Oscillation IndexA(n)_______is an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is widely supported by evidence from observation and experimentation and that accounts for all the relevant data.TheoryThe layer of the earth composed of mostly of molten rock that the crust lays upon ______.Mantle_________________ is a process for producing knowledge methodically and logically.ScienceTropical islands are _____.always hot and humidThe _____ separates the upper layer of the ocean from the more dense, deep water layer.thermoclineThe region of the earth is mostly composed of solid iron and nickel at about 9,800 degrees F.inner coreExperimental controlsensures that the experimental results are caused by the test factorProduction is a rate function - Carbon/unit area (volume)/time. The total amount of fixed carbon is______. Whereas the ________ is the amount left to support other trophic levels (GPP - growth and maintenance respiration by plants).Gross primary production, Net primary productionDuring an El Nino year, people on Guam should expectmore tropical storms and typhoonsLimestone can be fine-grained, or include large fossils and can best be characterized as a type ofsedimentary rockThe lack of refutable hypotheses is a common feature ofpseudoscienceCompared to climate, weatherare changes in rain and wind over a short period of timeProof in science is alwaysopen to question and new evidenceEnvironmental science isa systematic approach to learning about the environmentEnvironmental gradientsusually result from a gradual change in abiotic conditionsImagine a high island like Guam. What are two abiotic factors that change with elevation as you go from the shoreline to the top of Mt. Lam Lam on the east side of Guam?Air pressure, humidity, temperature, mineralsQuestions that address an immediate cause of a phenomenonProximateGuam's oldest rocks are mostly basalt, which are a(n) ____ rock.IgneousA(n) _____ is another case or repetition of the same test, control, or observation that is used to provide statistical reliability in the results of a study.ReplicateEcologists studyRelationships between organisms and their environmentAlthough your sister is not a scientist, she says that she uses scientific techniques in her everyday life. You do not believe her but she insists it is true. Which of the following examples could she use to best persuade you?She put some tomatoes in the sun and some in the shade to see if the sun causes them to ripen fasterThe fundamental basis of environmental science as a discipline is theHuman impact on the EarthEnvironmental science is a __________.systematic approach in learning about the environmentScientists who examine the role of a variety of bird species that disperse seeds of plants in the limestone forest are investigating phenomena at theecosystem levelThe ______ side of high islands tends to be drier than the windward side of those islands.leeward_______is the process by which deep, nutrient-rich water is pulled from deeper depths to shallower depths to replace water that has been blown along the surface by winds.UpwellingOceanic islands tend to have many endemic species, because these islands aretoo far away and isolated for people to transport plants and animals easilyA scientific question asked in a way that can be tested through observations or experiments is called ahypothesisBelow about 60 feet in the ocean, why do humans appear to have green/brown blood?Blood absorbs green/brown light at 60 feet. Everything looks green at 60 feet.In Muniappans transect at Hilaan, there was an environmental gradient in ______________.soil organic matterRegarding biological complexity, a _______ includes all the individuals of a species occurring in the same area.populationThe Mariana Islands are an example of an archipelago form by _____ volcanism.subductionUsing the Geological time scale above, name the epoch when volcanic activity first began to uplift what would become the island of Guam? ________ The period when all current life forms arose was the _________ The end of the Cretaceous period was when the non-avian dinosaurs died approximately _______ million years ago.Eocene, Cambrian, 65.5Limestone can be depositional or framework and can best be characterized as ________________ rock.sedimentaryGuam's early geological history was primarily volcanic, characterized by what kind of rock?BasaltCompared to oceanic crust, continental crust is generally _____.older than oceanic crust