Trinity DipTesol Unit 1 - Grammar
Terms in this set (255)
repetitive, memorization of dialogue with vocab swapped in or out of pattern. Drills until utterance recalled in form. Based on behaviourist theory (Skinner)
Native Speaker Competance
speaker can produce and identify infinite sentence in their language and instantly distinguish grammatical sentences
Language users ability to use language functionally in various situations
Total stock of words in a language
it is a word, part of a word or a sequence of words which forms a unit of meaning
the method and practice of teaching
Written or spoken communication
Parts of Speech (All)
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, articles, determiners and interjections. 10 types.
Verb Forms: Principle Parts
-ed (past participle)
-inflected forms of verbs (past tense)
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
a verb tense which shows an action has been completed.
Formed from 'to have' + past participle
Three types -
- Present perfect completed in the past before now(have played)
- Past perfect - completed before another event happened on the past (had played)
- Future perfect - complete at some point in the future but not yet started (I will have won)
Note: Passive voice intransitive verbs can be perfect tense e.g. They have got dressed.
to talk about past / present / future when telling a story or while speaking.
- Present simple (I eat)
- Present Progressive (I am eating)
- Present Perfect (I have eaten)
- Present Perfect Progressive (I had been eating)
a verb tense that expresses actions / conditionals / states / hypotheses / politeness in the past.
- Past simple (I played)
- Past progressive (I was playing)
- Past perfect (I had played)
- Past Perfect Progressive (I had been playing)
There is no inflection on verb which describes future.
There are many ways to express the future.
'Will' most common method.
Learners need to know adverbials, auxiliaries and modals to express future properly.
Choose futurity based on:
- Is future event is intended or predicted
- Is the future event connected or detached from present
Similar to aspect used when choosing past, determine connectivity of future to present
Diagram which illustrates reference to time made by piece of language.
Used to simplify explanation and provide awareness of how language refers to time.
This is what items do in real context rather than do literally.
Example: suggest, refuse, criticise, advise, agree, enquire, describe etc
Any utterance can show several functions and any function can be expressed in many different ways.
The way language refers to context in which it's used
using language to state personal feelings, thoughts, commitment and attitudes to message
focus on the object being addressed e.g. order or command
language used to make contact comfortable, irrespective of content e.g. small talk
language used to talk about language
language draws attention to itself due to aesthetic form or style
Study of words and how they are formed, including word parts (morphemes) to facilitate students development of vocabulary
The smallest units of meaning in a language. Can be used independently or even not hold any meaning e.g. prefix
Closed classes of words
types of words the growth of which is very limited (pronouns, conjunctuons, auxiliary verbs, determiners, inflectional suffixes and prepositions)
Open classes of words
Types of words that grow in number in a language and which change depending on grammar or meaning of sentence
Free morpheme: content words
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs - words which hold meaning on its own
No meaning if unattached, e.g. inflectional bound morpheme (suffixes, plurals, possessives etc).
how meanings of words relate to oneanother
the creation of a new word
A change overtime in what a word means and how it is used, but form stays same.
a number of approaches to analyzing written, sign or spoken language e.g. sounds, gestures, syntax, lexis, style, function, rhetoric, meanings etc
the study of the effect of aspects of society on the way language is used
The field concerned with the psychological and neurological factors which enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
A term for localised or indigenous varieties of English, from countries effected by inner circle of English speaking nations.
systematic set of teaching practices based off a particular theory of language learning.
A set of patterns for how words are put together to form phrases and clauses, whether spoken or written e.g. SVO
A naming word of a person, place, thing, loving creature, quality, action or idea
describes an action or state of being
A word that modifies a noun or pronoun
A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Usually tells you how something is done or when/where it's done or happened.
An wdverb can stand on its own without a complementary noun phrase.
Used in place of a noun, to avoid repetition
A word that joins words or groups of words
A word that comes before the noun, pronoun or noun phrase and shows the relationship of noun to another word
Unusual word, stands alone. expresses emotion or suprise. followed by an exclamation mark. e.g. Ouch!
Used to introduce a noun e.g. the, a, an
Different kinds of systems, such as phonetic, phonological, orthographic, discourse analytic or conversation analytic. All used to analyse language.
the object which is directly affected by the subject verb, e.g. he kicked the ball
the gap between theory and practical application
the use of written or oral texts designed for real use
gives learners opportunities to put language into action in classroom
all sections of lesson plan are aligned and support each other in logical sequence from ILOs to CAs to ATs
how literal meaning changes depending on context, function and speaker
Learners preferred type of resource to learn from e.g. visual, kinaesthetic etc
Overall goal for intended result
Specific individual steps to achieve aim
Possession of knowledge of basic principles of assessment e.g. initial, formative, diagnostic and summative
Expression of how action, event or state denoted by verb extends over time
Expression of an event expressed as bounded and unitary, with no reference to flow of time e.g. I helped him.
1st Form of Verb
Simple or base form (uninflected form) e.g. dance
This can refer to past and past participle form of verb e.g. put, puts and putting
2nd Form of Verb
3rd Person Singular present form e.g. dances
3rd form of Verb
the present (-ing) participle and gerund form e.g. dancing
4th form of Verb
Regular verbs and some irregular verbs (bring) have four forms.
This form is the past tense and past participle form (+ed) e.g. bring, brings, bringing and brought
5th Form of Irregular Verb
Some irregular verbs have a separate past and past participle form e.g. sing, sings, singing, sang and sung
The verb 'be'
More forms than any other verb, with 8 forms.
- simple form - be
- -ing participle form - being
- past participle - been
- 1st person singular present form - am
- 3rd person present form - is
- the plural present form - are
- the singular past form - was
- the plural part form - were
to change a verb to express person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood or voice.
learn subjects through L2 language
Content & Language Integrated Learning
Effective if -
- content related to defined curriculum
- communication and language used to learn
- cognitive skills developed to link abstract and concrete concepts
- cultural exposure to alternate perspectives
- increases motivation as language used for real purpose
- engenders positive attitudes towards language
- encourages multi-lingual interests
A fixed systematic way of teaching with prescribed activities and techniques
Language teaching ideas which can be interpreted or applied differently, i.e. theory
Situational Language Learning: Theory of Language
Language is a set of structures related to situations
A method to teach languages in which the teacher doesn't speak but uses manipulatives to explain.
using senses; visualization, games, play, taking on of persona, relaxation, music, room, etc.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Developed by James Asher; is an example of comprehension approach.
Community Language Learning (CLL)
1970's, Teachers were counselors and facilitated the group
total immersion; teaching a language like a person learned their first language
Content Based ESL
Students are taught part of the curriculum through English and not just the language English.
Task based learning
students do a task after watching native speakers do it. Language focus is optional
Blend of methods and approaches dependent on situation
does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence
They are found in adjuncts, conditionals, relative clauses, participle clauses, past perfect aspect and future perfect aspect.
a word or phrase that is optional or considered of secondary important e.g. 'on the pitch' in 'we left some footballs on the pitch'
introduced by a relative pronouns, e.g. who, that, which, whose, where & when.
These are used to define the noun which precedes them. Sometimes called adjective clause due to function.
e.g. The keeper, who is world class, saved the penalty.
These are adverbial clauses which enable use to give more info in an economical. They give info about condition, reason, result or time.
They can be formed with present or past participle, and they can be perfect aspect if need to emphasize one action before another.
Shouting loudly, the goalkeeper sprinted out.
Shouted at loudly, the goalkeeper covered his ears.
Having won the match, the GK jumped for joy!
Subject Complement (Cs)
This is a noun, pronoun or adjective which follows a linking verb (a verb which could be replaced by = and the sentence would make sense)
e.g. he is a great 'player'
is = linking verb / player = SC
determiner which demonstrates identity of things referenced (e.g. 'this', 'that', 'these' 'those')
These can be demonstrative adjectives/pronouns as well
eg. THIS cup, THAT van
These function as the object of a verb or preposition
e.g. He slapped him
(me, you, him, her, it, us, them)
A noun, object pronoun, or adjective, that follows the direct Object and renames or modifies it.
Often use with make, name, call, choose, elect and appoint.
e.g. I called my manager 'Gaffer'
an adjective which is used after the noun, changing the meaning in some way.
e.g. I consider this winger quick
a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject
e.g. He was a psycho
a clause introduced by a complementizer such as that or whether, and attached to the preceding noun, adjective or verb.
e.g. The new 'that we signed him' shocked me.
Language picked up in community which doesn't make sense out of context e.g. that'll do / I'll get it
Amy relationship between two or more words based on meaning e.g. throw ball
Communicative Language Teaching
Notions and Functions often taught, and grammar is taught lexically i.e. functionally e.g. I'd like too = chunk expressing desire NOT pronoun + perfect + verb etc
No L1, grammar or writing. Common vocab taught through images and realised. Situational interaction through chain drilling. Grammar learnt intuitively and focus on spoken grammar.
Similar to Natural Method
knowledge which can be applied to other tasks
Knowledge of information that can be expressed in words.
Literal meaning of the word/utterance.
Meaning of the word/phrase/utterance in context.
e.f. Semantic meaning + cooperative principles (QQRM) + World Knowledge (SPEAKING)
Intended effect of utterance on audience
e.g. - ing verbs - commanding etc
contextual meaning of pronouns e.g. meaning in given context.
The footballer ran. He ran fast.
The logical meaning if a sentence in pragmatics
a speaker does certain things in utterances other than convey information
an indirect or implicit meaning of an utterance derived from context.
Rules which govern the way words combine
Grouping set of words based on how they function in syntactic structure
Ability to use corpus linguistic tech to carry out linguistic analysis
A way of talking about time without using time periods
4 kinds of aspect
1. Progressive - action occuring in time reference
2. Perfect - action completed
3. Perfect Progressive - emphasis of when action completed
4. Simple - no particular time
Communicative method makes learners task facilitators and then tasks become ends in themselves.
We as teacher should demand more e.g. extension qs / expanded feedback / high level production / teach to middle / teach grammar / stretch
Neurolinguistic programming (NLP)
brainchild of linguistics professor John Grinder and mathematician John Bander. An approach to communication, personal development and psychotherapy.
reading and listening skills
speaking and writing skills
language focused learning
grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary
the basic form of the verb without subject tense or aspect
1. Takes infinitive without 'to' e.g. He will jump
2. No change in form for 3rd Person e.g. she will
3. A question can be formed by inversion e.g. I will come / Will you come?
4. There is a past form e.g. won't
5. The negative is formed by adding 'not' e.g. will not
6. It cannot be preceded by another auxiliary verb e.g. can will
the speaker or writers attitude towards the world
e.g. certainty, possibility, obligation, willingness, necessity and ability
Assumption a language speaker is part of NS culture due to communication competance
ELF for Europe
Characteristics - Voicing / Consonants / Vowel Length / Sentence Stress / Vowel Quality / Word Stress / Stress timing
A variety of verb structures that can have a future reference
a term for adjective taking form as participle e.g. +ed.+en or +ing, alarmed, married, excited etc
The formal features of language link together correctly and this is objectively verifiable
If contents makes sense to reader (inference and subjective)
Analyze product first and reproduce
Idea generation and drafting
Leading teacher in self-reflection
This is used if a situation is considered. real possibility, e.g. situation may not occur as opposite affair reigns, 'if we could go'
This states conditions on which possible event depends.
'If' begins it, and it is a subordinate clause.
adds extra info to noun phrase.
They can be formed by adding -ing/-ed to a noun phrase e.g. talented
Adverbs expand on info in verb phrase
a word formed from a verb and used as an adjective or a noun
describe qualities of the noun e.g. long
place nouns in categories e.g. daily
adverbs that modify adjectives or other adverbs e.g. very, rather, so etc
Used to compare more than two objects or people e.g. she is more useful than he is.
an adjective used to compare two items; example: Today is HOTTER than yesterday.
formed by adding verb participle to noun, adjective or adverb e.g. good looking, fine running
This changes the aspect of the noun without affecting the grammar e.g. sports car.
determines quality of noun and does affect grammar e.g. our tea
A word or phrase functioning like an adverb e.g. all day, to his cheek
used with bound and define reference of noun by answering wh-question e.g. my cup
a noun without a determiner e.g. pass cup
This signals new information e.g. There's a cup
signals given information e.g. pass the cup
Something which can have different degrees e.g. big, hot etc
These cannot add -very and don't have different degrees e.g. married
the process where lexical categories are combined to create a larger word.
This process can create a noun, verb, or adjective.
Usually the first syllable is stressed, but the last syllable defines word class.
The first element defines meaning more narrowly
e.g. dog food
Meaning can be derived from separate parts of compound word e.g. goal post
The meaning cannot be derived from the seperate parts e.g.
Greenhouse / Golden handcuffs / Cold shoulder
adding a prefix or suffix to a word.
Infix is not present in English, except in slang.
assign an existing word to a new syntactic category by shifting stress, adding a pre/suffix
Shorten a word by deleting syllables to create a new one e.g Mal from Malcolm
A word extract from non-morphemic parts of two existing items e.g. chortle (Snort and Chuckle)
Derivation Back formation
process of creating new word by removing affix e.g. donate
to create a new word from scratch, most often in technology e.g. Wifi
A words meaning in relation to other words, defined by reference to others e.g. lift
A words meaning on its own without relation to others
different points along the same scale e.g. temperature
exact opposites defined by general incompatibility
These can be:
Reversives - different between verbs of motion
Conversives - words formed from different viewpoints
Markedness - one is neutral while the other is marked (used in question forms to distinguish)
e.g. push pull / buy sell / long short
These depend on the preceding adjective or verb for meaning in context
the study of language use to find specific features and create rules.
There is a recognition that there are two distinct types of discourse - speaking and writing.
Types: pragmatics / conversational analysis / genre analysis (Gove analysis, limited text gives away genre)
Connections such as repetition of words, lexical chains and parallelism.
Connections such as: reference, substitution and ellipsis, linkers and parallelism.
There are words which link together a paragraph or body of text e.g. addition/contrasting/Cause&Effect/time sequence
reference to the context of the present not mentioned but assumed the reader is aware of.
These structures refer upwards to previously mentioned vocabulary
Refer downward to subsequently mentioned vocabularu
Refer to vocabulary outside of text/discourse
Principle of Minimal Attachment
When processing sentence people choose the simplest meaning
Principle of Late Closure
Tendancy of people to join new info to main clause e.g. John will leave this morning
a / an - uncountable nouns never take this
indicate how many EX. some, all, every, each, no, none
Place time manner frequency degree opinion
e.g. there, now, quickly, usually, very, luckily
Part of sentence that tell us more information about something or someone.
It can be removed without affected coherence.
The tendency for some words to combine or be frequently paired with one another.
communicate a message or achieve something by connecting info
Exponents of Functions
the language used to achieve a particular function
the text which immediately surrounds the lexical item being taught
Expresses an action done by its subject.
The subject receives the action
a: Sematics of words and structures used
B: expectations of the speaker
C: expectations of the listener
d. environment in which language is used
A nominal or dependent clause
the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.
the study of the formation of words
Representational Function of Grammar
how language reflects the way we perceive the world
Interpersonal function of language
use grammar to ease the task and get things done
A word or phrase functioning like an adverb
when, where, how did this happen
find examples to fit rules
find rules from examples
ease, economy and efficiency of method of teaching
Appropriate of language taught
Accuracy of grammar
develop precision of applying grammar to language
Fluency of grammar
atomisation of the production of correct spoken grammar
The Rule of Context
Teach grammar in context
The rule of Use
teach grammar in order to improve understanding and production of language
the rule of economy
maximise practice by being economical with explanations
Rule of Relevance
teach grammar students have problems with to avoid confusion
rule of nuture
create conditions and repeat structures to facilitate learning
rule of appropriacy
teach to students interest and needs
Containers / Quantifiers
Defining how many or much of a countable or uncountable nouns there is
objects which refer to the subject e.g. myself
words that compare two things e.g. as, not as, the same as, too, enough etc
let make have get help - all are verbs which cause something to happen
formed using the modal or auxiliary plus the appropriate subject e.g. aren't you?
Defining relative clause
gives essential information about subject as part of relative clause
non defining relative clause
gives extra information which is not necessary to be coherant
a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object.
A noun you can see and touch
a short adverb used as part of phrasal verb e.g. up/out etc
the specific, identifiable cause of an action in a sentence
this is because progressive and perfect forms also express meanings other than time
A sentence variation that provides a way of shifting the stress or focus of the sentence e.g. it/what I need is a drink!
one of two clauses joined together of equal value
a question which has the same grammatical form as a statement. Example: That's your girlfriend?
Words/phrases that signal the relationship and connections between utterances and the wider context
relfexive pronoun used for emphasis e.g. I'll tell him myself!
move a part of a clause to the beginning to give it special emphasis
future simple aspect
made with auxiliary (will/shall) + base infinitive
Future perfect aspect
shall/will + have + past participle e.g. I will have finished...
future progressive aspect
shall/will + be + ing e.g. I will be needing a bath
Form of a verb that acts as a noun with ing attached
e.g. sometimes - it can go in the initial position in a sentence
a participle which appears to have a subject which is not its own
a verb form which can be used to form perfect, passive or an adjective e.g. broken, eaten etc (4th form of noun)
past perfect aspect
had + past participle e.g. I had forgotten
past progressive aspect
was/were + ing e.g. I was going
past perfect progressive
had been + present participle (ing) e.g. I had been walking
had + past participle e.g. I had won - shows a completed action
should/would have + past participle. Examples: I should/ would have agreed; he would have known
(to) have + past participle. Example: to have arrived
a word which comes either rafter or before the word it modifies
use of it to prepare audience. often used if subject of sentence is infinitive or a whole clause e.g. it is important to get enough sleep.
present perfect aspect
have/has + past participle e.g. I have forgotten / it has been raining
an infinitive with an adverb between 'to' and the verb (e.g., 'to boldly go')
if (1st) will (2nd/3rd) had / was&were / would
the contradiction or denial of something e.g. never no not
expression of quantity or diversity used before countable nouns
a word used as adverbs or prepositions in other contexts e.f. away, back, off, on & out
The verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives in early Late Modern English.
Basic form - Lewis
this is the base form.of the verb including infinitive, imperitive and present simple versions
Remote Form / 2nd form
past simple e.g. went saw etc
Compound Form / 3rd form
past participle e.g. taken brought
perfect forms / past + present perfect eg. have + past participle
e.g. be +into torm
present past progressive - waiting etc
there / it
a sentence in which special emphasis is given to one part by using a structure within it or what
a part of sentence which gives more information about subject
needed after noun, verb, adjective or prepositions to complete meaning
if and would used to form them
a word is with the verb