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CH 4: Self and Identity
Terms in this set (93)
ability to think about ourselves thinking
Abstract or theoretical concepts or variables that are not observable and are used to explain or clarify a phenomenon.
4 sources of change contributing to the complex individual self
the idea that fulfillment occurs in the afterlife was replaced by the idea that you should actively pursue personal fulfillment in this life
people were increasingly seen as units of production that moved from place to place to work and thus had a portable personal identity that was not locked into static social structures such as the extended family
people felt that they could organize and construct different, better, identities an live for themselves by overthrowing orthodox value systems and oppressive regimes
Freud's theory of the human mind crystallized the notion that the self was unfathomable because it lurked in the gloomy depths of the unconscious
unsocialized and libidinal impulses (the id) are repressed and kept in check by internalized societal norms (the superego)
repressed impulses can surface
the only way to know oneself is to through hypnosis or psychotherapy to reveal repressed thoughts
beliefs about our identities as members of social groups to which we belong
- there is no psychology of groups which is not essentially and entirely a psychology of individuals
... makes it difficult to research collective self
beliefs about our unique personal traits, abilities, preferences, tastes, talents, and so forth
self as a stream of consciousness
self as an object of perception
theory of how the self emerges from human interaction which involved people trading symbols (through language and gesture) that are usually consensual and present abstract properties rather than concrete objects
What does interacting effectively require?
taking on the object position rather than subject
-me rather than I
-take on the role of another person
the self derived from seeing ourselves as others see us
Do people see themselves according to the looking glass self?
People did not tend to see themselves the way others see them, but how they think others see them
- suggests we do not take on the role of other when constructing sense of self
the self-enhancing triad
Above average effect (overestimate their good points), Illusions of control, Unrealistic optimism
a state in which you are aware of yourself as an object, just like you are aware of a tree or another person
2 types of self you can be aware of
1. the private self
2. the public self
the private self
your private thoughts, feelings, and attitudes
the public self
how other people see you, your public image
try to match your behavior to internalized standards
oriented towards presenting yourself to others in a positive light
process where people lose their sense of socialized individual identity and engage in unsocialized often antisocial behavior
- may be implicated in how crowds behave and in other forms of social unrest
- individually, people may drink or commit suicide when attempting to reduce objective self-awareness
Can self-awareness be primed?
yes, but suggests then it would be self-focused attention (automatic)
not so much self-awareness (controlled)
When we are self-aware, what are we aware of?
stores as separate context-specific nodes where different contexts activate different nodes and thus, effectively, different aspects of self
where are self-schemas strongest?
on dimensions that are important to us, where we may hold more extreme opinions
less important dimensions we may be aschematic
what is the benefit of self-concept being multi-faceted?
it helps us better adapt to extreme life events
if we have strict self-schemas, we may have more extreme reactions
may cause extreme mood swings
3 types fo self schema
1. actual self - how we currently are
2. ideal self - how we would like to be
3. 'ought self - how we think we should be
what is the nature of the relationship between ideal self and 'out self?
they are both self guides but they mobilize different types of self-related behavior
- for the same goal they initiate different behavior
- discrepancies between actual and the ideal or 'ought is what motivates change to reduce discrepancy
strategies that we use to match our behavior to an ideal or 'ought' standard
what happens when we can't resolve discrepancy?
regulatory focus theory
we have two separate self-regulatory systems which are concerned with the pursuit of different types of goals
A promotion focus causes people to be approach-oriented in constructing a sense of self; a prevention focus causes people to be more cautious and avoidant in constructing a sense of self.
The promotion system
concerned with the attainment of one's hopes and aspirations - one's ideals
it generates sensitivity to the presence or absence of positive events
people adopt approach strategic means to attain their goals
ex: focus on achieving highest grade
the prevention system
concerned with the fulfillment of one's duties and obligations - one's oughts
generates sensitivity to the presence or absence of negative events
people use avoidance strategic means to attain their goals
ex: focus on not failing
Bem's idea that we gain knowledge of ourselves only by making self-attributions; for example, we infer our own attitudes from our own behaviour.
over justification effect
in the absence of obvious external determinants of our behavior, we assume that we freely choose the behavior because we enjoy it
what is the relationship between self-attributions and motivation?
the more external the attribution the less motivation and vice versa
can external reward be useful?
yes, using performance contingent, rather than task-contingent rewards
shift attention to features of their performance
social comparison theory
Comparing our behaviours and opinions with those of others in order to establish the correct or socially approved way of thinking and behaving.
- we seek out similar others to validate our opinions
self-evaluation maintenance model
People who are constrained to make esteem-damaging upward comparisons can underplay or deny similarity to the target, or they can withdraw from their relationship with the target.
"Basking in reflected glory." a strategy by which we reinforce our positive self-concepts by identifying ourselves with successful others
2 borad classes of identity that define different types of self (Tajfel and Turner)
1. social identity
2. personal identity
the part of the self-concept that derives from our membership in social groups
the self defined in terms of unique personal attributes or unique interpersonal relationships
Brewer and Gardner's 3 forms of self
1. individual self
- based on personal traits that differentiate the self from all others
2. relational self
- based on connections and role relationships with significant others
3. collective self
- baed on group membership that differentiates us from them
Brewer's 4 types of identity
1. person-based social identities
2. relational social identities
3. group-based social identities
4. collective identities
person-based social identities
emphasizing the internalization of group properties by individual group members as part of their self-concept
relational social identities
defining the self in relation to specific other people with whom one interacts in a group context - corresponding to relational identity and interdependent self
group-based social identities
equivalent to social identity
- defines self in terms of group memberships
referring to a process where group members not only share self-defining attributes but also engage in social action to forge an image what the group stands for and how it is represented and viewed by others
Is our concept of self and identity context dependent?
most argue yes because we have many selves and only certain ones are brought forward because of certain situations
the sense that one is a single, integrated, and bounded entity of our many selves
3 strategies to construct a coherent sense of self
1. restrict life to limited set of contexts
2. keep revising and integrating your autobiography to accommodate new identities
3. apply the actor-observer effect (blame changes on external factors rather than internal)
social identity theory
Theory of group membership and intergroup relations based on self-categorisation, social comparison and the construction of a shared self-definition in terms of ingroup defining properties.
Turner and associates' theory of how the process of categorizing oneself as a group member produces social identity and group and intergroup behaviors
cognitive representation of the typical/ideal defining features of a category
The prototype of a group is that position within the group that has the largest ratio of 'differences to ingroup positions' to 'differences to outgroup positions'.
How does social categorization become salient?
If it fits structurally and normatively
What is a consequence of social identity salience?
when identities fuse with group membership, it becomes fused with social identity and allows for extreme behavior
- the process produces stereotypical behavior of the group, because start to act like the prototype
How does group membership influence behavior within a group?
When we recognize our group as less prestigious, we may try to pass into a more prestigious group
- if not possible, we try to lessen our salient features of being in the less prestigious group OR focus our comparisons on even lower prestigious groups
- of basis is illegitimate, then fight for social change may be brought forth
3 motives thats interact to influence self-consturction and the search for self-knowledge
The motivation to seek out new information about ourselves in order to find out what sort of person we really are.
- desire to have accurate and valid information about oneself
Seeking out information that verifies and confirms what we already know about ourselves
- if we have negative self-image, seek out negative info...etc.
can occur at social identity level
The motivation to develop and promote a favourable image of self.
- self-protection plays a role but is more specific to an isolated event/situation where self-enhancement is more global
the theory that people reduce the impact of threat to their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence in some other area
what are the focuses of self-reflection dependent on which self-motive is operating?
self-assessment - greater self-reflection on peripheral rather than central traits of self
- wether desirable or not
- find out what you're unfamiliar with
self-verification - " " " on central rather than peripheral traits
- wether positive or not
- confirm what you already know
self-enhancement - " " " on positive rather than negative aspects of self
- wether central or not
- drive to lear positive things about self
which self-motive is strongest?
shows people's main drive to think positively about themselves
Publicly making advance external attributions for our anticipated failure or poor performance in a forthcoming event.
Why is self-conceptual positivity bias adaptive?
people who fail to have these biases often have depression or some other form of mental illness
feelings about and evaluations of oneself - self worth
- some suggest it is a reflection of successful social connectedness
group attributes that mediate a negative social evaluation of people belonging to the group
How does group membership affect self-esteem?
- social identity affects self-esteem
- obese group typically less self esteem than olympians
- but negative groups good at avoiding self-esteem consequences of stigma
What is the correlation between age and ethnic membership preferences
The desire of ethnic minorities to belong to ethnic majority declines with age
where does self-esteem typically range?
from moderate to very high
not low to high
what is the correlation between self-esteem and violence?
violence more frequent in those with high self-esteem when their rosy image is threatened
not all, most likely narcissistic
a personality trait that is volatile, comprising self-love and inflated or grandiose view of oneself
two main underlying differences associated with trait self-esteem
1. self-concept confusions: high self-esteem people have a more through, consistent and stable stock of self-knowledge than do low self-esteem people
2. motivational orientation: high self-esteem people have a self-enhancing orientation in which they capitalize on their positive features and pursue success, whereas low self-esteem people have self-protective orientation in which they try to remedy their shortcomings and avoid failures and setbacks
Why do people pursue self-esteem?
terror management theory
The notion that the most fundamental human motivation is to reduce the terror of the inevitability of death. Self-esteem may be centrally implicated in effective terror management
- when you feel good about yourself, you feel immortal
-humility may be another contributing factor
How is self-esteem a sociometer?
it is a reliable index, or internal monitor, of social acceptance and belonging
- correlated with reduced anxiety over social rejection and exclusion
- we have conquered the threat of loneliness and social rejection
people's use of various strategies to get other people to view them in a positive light
- how we behave differently in different circumstances
2 classes of motive for self-presentation
carefully controlling how we present ourselves. There are situational differences and individual differences ins self-monitoring
high --> strategic self-presentation
- because shape behavior to project impression they feel is favorable/is demanded
low --> expressive self-presentation
- because behavior less responsive to changing contextual demands
5 strategic motives
- trying to persuade others you are competent (competence)
- trying to get others to like you (warmth)
- ...to think you are dangerous
- to regard you as a morally respectable individual
- to take pity on you as helpless and needy
A deliberate effort to act in ways that create a particular impression, usually favourable, of ourselves.
strategic vs expressive self-presentation
s: focus on manipulating others' perceptions of you
e: demonstrating and validating our self-conceptthrough our actions
- more focus on oneself than on others
what is the relationship between self-concept change and self-presentation?
what is important in self-concept change is that other people perceive you in a particular way - this is social validation
it is not enough for you and only you to to perceive yourself in a certain way
expectations create reality
Which cultures have independent vs interdependent senses of self?
Western vs non-western typically
What is the difference between independent self and interdependent self?
Independent: self as autonomous, separate from other people and revealed through one's inner thoughts and feelings
interdependent: one's connection to and relationships with other people. expressed through one's roles and relationships. Self is defined by a person's surrounding relations, networks, and cultural values
Is the need for a sense of self universal?
research suggests yes
but self-distinctiveness means something different in individualistic and collectivist cultures
reflective in economic activity and practices
Sets found in the same folder
CH 1: Introducing Social Psychology
CH 2: Social Cognition and Social Thinking
CH 3: Attribution and Social Explanation
CH 5: Attitudes
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Social Psych BOOK CH 3
PSY-227-01 Ch.4 The Self: Learning About the Self
PSYC 260 Chapter 4: The Self (B)
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