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Psychology Mid-Term Review
Test Prep for Psych Mid-Term
Terms in this set (200)
By triggering the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, ________ boosts alertness and diminishes appetite.
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to
Lapse into a coma
Visually associating five items needed from the grocery store with mental images of a bun, a shoe, a tree, a door, and a hive best illustrates the use of
The peg-word system
Which brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?
Alexis is addicted to drugs. The room in which she usually takes them is likely to become a(n) ________ for drug cravings.
Margie insists that she never dreams, but her sister feels she can prove otherwise. To prove that Margie does dream, the sister should
Wake Margie after 5 minutes of REM sleep and ask her what she's dreaming
Students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of
Working in a community mental health center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. Thatcher is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
Bandura's experiments indicate that ________ is important in the process of learning.
Memories are primed by
As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the phenomenon of
Which cognitive neuroscience term reflects the idea that "much of our everyday thinking, feeling, and acting operates outside our conscious awareness"?
size dual processing
Movement of the hair cells along the basilar membrane
initiates transduction and the transmission of neural messages to the auditory cortex.
Damage to the basilar membrane is most likely to result in
Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.
The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to
the vestibular sense.
What do methamphetamine, caffeine, and cocaine have in common?
They excite neural activity and arouse body functions.
How many morphemes are in the word "bats"?
Regular users of ________ may achieve a high with smaller amounts of the drug than occasional users.
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
The tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as
the spacing effect.
The personalities of adopted children
are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.
The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________ is to ________.
visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
When Bryan's girlfriend broke up with him, he felt very down. As he sat in his bedroom, he thought about all of the other times his heart had been broken. Bryan's experience provides an example of
Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of
The self-reference effect best illustrates the value of
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that
words shape the way people think.
The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use of
the representativeness heuristic.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
sweating in hot weather
The axons of ganglion cells converge to form
the optic nerve.
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially
rapid and subsequently slows down.
The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter
Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited capacity?
An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire, whereas much stronger but less important odor s fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to
Josef, a high school student, tells his therapist that he has had a recurring dream in which he hunts and kills a ferocious tiger. The therapist explains that the dream reflects Josef's unresolved feelings of hostility toward his father. According to Freud, the therapist is revealing the possible ________ content of Josef's dream.
In trying to figure out how to copy and paste an item into a document, Arlene could try all possible key combinations or she could check the pull-down menus, a much faster way to solve her problem. Arlene is relying on
A research method in which an investigator manipulates factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called a(n)
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely th at Dr. Winkle is a(n) ________ psychologist.
Which of the following statements is most correct about the relationship between correlation and causation?
Correlation indicates the possibility of a causal relationship, but it does not prove causation.
Nimin has volunteered to participate in an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know whether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of
the double-blind procedure.
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS was
The Sound of a Tone
In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be the most affected by a couple of extremely high scores?
A gestalt is best described as a(n)
An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to sa livate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light
a half-second before the food.
Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates
If a blind person uses one finger to read Braille, the brain area dedicated to that finger expands as the sense of touch invades the visual cortex. This is an example of
Mr. and Mrs. Berry have five children aged 2, 3, 7, 9, and 9. The median age of the Berry children is
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the _______ of a single neuron.
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
Trying to see a hidden representational image in a piece of abstract art by looking carefully at each element in the pic ture and trying to form an image employs which kind of perceptual process?
Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates
The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew's temper tantrums.
Direct stimulation of the motor cortex would be most likely to result in
movement of the mouth and lips.
Those who emphasise that mood fluctuations change from one season to the next are highlighting the importance of
What is the difference between a primary and a conditioned reinforcer?
Primary reinforcers are unlearned and innately satisfying; conditioned reinforcers are learned.
REM rebound involves the
Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates
After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. Thi s best illustrates
The perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that are near each other is called
To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of
The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
The organization of information into meaningful units is called
In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
a. mental processes.
After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour and a half, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular, and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth. Carlos was most likely experiencing
Dr. Veenstra conducts basic research on the impact of racial prejudice on behavior. Dr. Veenstra is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State University are considered to be a(n)
Laurie's thumb sucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of
When her teacher mentioned the arms race, Krista understood that the word "arms" referred to weapons and not to body parts. Krista's correct interpretation best illustrates the importance of
If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ________ into your bloodstream.
The release of stored serotonin and the eventual damage of serotonin-producing neurons is most closely associated with the long-term use of
Experiencing a green afterimage of a red object is most easily explained by
the opponent-process theory.
Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions.
Conditioning is the process of
Sleep deprivation has been shown to
diminish immunity to disease.
A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?
Professor Trinh contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)
Professor Raza suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of
Psychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE·ART on a screen. HE appeared in the left visual field, ART in the right. When asked to point to the word with their left hand, patients pointed to
At the age of 22, Mrs. Tamimi was less than 4 feet tall. Her short stature was probably influenced by the lack of a growth hormone produced by the
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
The experimental treatment is absent.
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the
Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
an external locus of control.
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action poten tial. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is
an all-or-none response.
For which of the following distributions of scores would the median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central tendency than the mean?
6, 18, 4, 5, 2
If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are
After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to experience unusual difficulty figuring out how to find his way t o various locations in his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
Robert wants to pursue a degree in a field in which he could help people learn how to change their lives, such as determining what career best suits them. The subfield that is most applicable in this area is
For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.
When the release of ACh is blocked, the result is
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
The hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating are most likely to occur during which sleep stage?
Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.
Our experiences, assumptions, and expectations may give us a perceptual set that influences what we perceive. This is an example of
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n)
Little Albert was conditioned by John B. Watson to fear furry white rats. After conditioning, Albert also showed fear to rabbits, dogs, and fur coats. This best illustrates
THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.
After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the ________ theory.
Drugs such as alcohol and opiates that calm neural activity and slow body functions are called
Every day as she walks to school, Susana passes a mural painted on the side of a building. However, when asked, she says she does not remember ever seeing it. Which of the following is the best explanation for this occurrence?
Susana has not paid attention to the incoming information so it was not encoded
into long-term memory.
Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes.
The area of the brain that receives information from the nose is directly connected with the limbic system. This connection may explain why smells are often involved in which of the following?
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
A trainer wants to train a chicken to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly an d the behavior to be resistant to extinction, she should use ________ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of ________ reinforcement.
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficu lty
playing his guitar.
playing his guitar.
Someone who has difficulty speaking after a stroke is suffering from which of the following?
Chloe believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods because this has enhanced human survival. Her belief best illustrates the ________ perspective.
An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
Memory is best defined as
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.
Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature of
Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he fai led to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered
The inability to remember events in one's life which occurred prior to a brain injury is known as
To graphically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a
The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because
our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
The parietal lobes are to ________ as the occipital lobes are to ________.
sensing touch; seeing
Heritability refers to the extent to which
trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior"?
John B. Watson
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
John B. Watson emphasized that
learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes.
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulat e the rat's
In an experiment, researchers manipulate one factor to see its effect on a target factor. What is this target factor cal led?
Dissociation refers to
a state of divided consciousness.
Some researchers suggest that the brain activity associated with REM sleep provides the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation. This finding supports which of the following dream theories?
When a professional golfer continued to struggle with her swing, she consulted Dr. Ozak, who helped her learn new strategies to help her improve her performance. Dr. Ozak is a(n) _______ psychologist.
In the hypothesis "Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep," what is the independent variable?
time of day
Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning, because her energy level and ability t o concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the
Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory.
Olgulskya sold many more raffle tickets when she told potential buyers they had a 10 percent chance of winning a prize than when she told them they had a 90 percent chance of not winning. This best illustrates
the framing effect.
When light strikes the retina, it signals the suprachiasmatic nucleus to alter ________ production by the pineal gland.
A floating sea vessel is to the ocean water as ________ is to ________.
Humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of
healthy growth potential.
our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment.
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among children.
Professor Kohler observed chimpanzees discover a novel way to reach a banana hung out of their reach. This scenario is most likely an example of which type of learning?
If psychologists discovered that more intelligent parents have smarter children than less intelligent parents, this woul d demonstrate that
the intelligence of parents and children is positively correlated.
Professor Sharapova has so many memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor's difficulty best illustrates
Circadian rhythm refers to
A pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle
Dr. Welker decided on his career path after seeing two of his grandparents experience Alzheimer's disease. Because he now works in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, he must be considered a(n) _____.
Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back t o sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from
Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates ________ memory.
A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use whi ch research method?
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
Following the scientific discovery that a specific brain structure is significantly larger in violent individuals than i n those who are nonviolent, a news headline announced: "Enlarged Brain Structure Triggers Violent Acts." The headline writer should most clearly be warned about the dangers of
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to
confusing correlation with causation.
The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home?
Thinking about sex (in your brain's cerebral cortex) can stimulate a region of the limbic system to secrete hormones. These hormones trigger the pituitary gland to influence hormones released by other glands in the body. Which brain region influences the endocrine system?
Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have been during the past season. Which of the following measures would be most relevant to this specific concern?
Compared with rods, cones are
less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail.
Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the
When Mr. Valdez thought his 1-year-old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heartbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his ________ nervous system.
Which professional specialty focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological disorders?
Which of the following correlations between annual income and education level would best enable you to predict annual income on the basis of level of education?
When the observed difference between the means of an experimental group and control group are not likely due to chance, researchers conclude that this difference is
During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term proactive interference. Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of
Which statement best reflects current psychology's understanding of the relationship between nature and nurture?
nature via nurture
In classical conditioning, the
neutral stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus.
The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that
people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of
While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well-balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of
Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encouraged among various ethnic communities?
A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that "classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools." Only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that "classroom prayer in public schools should be banned." These divergent findings best illustrate the importance of
The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the
Which of the following sleep disorders would have the most negative impact for a commercial bus driver?
How does the brain's capacity for parallel processing relate to encoding new memories?
Parallel processing allows many sensory experiences to be encoded all at once,
some automatically, some with effort.
Dr. Wescott hypothesized that students in a classroom seating 30 would get higher course grades than students seated in an auditorium seating 300. In this example,
classroom size has been operationally defined.
Luana edits manuscripts for a publisher and is paid $25 for every three pages she edits. Luana is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
Which of the following best describes the position of many current researchers regarding repression?
Repression rarely occurs as it is difficult to forget emotional material.
Which of the following is an example of a respondent behavior?
blushing when embarrassed
Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13 ths will bring bad luck. Felicia's belief best illustrates
Amaya wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and Asian-American friends result from biological or cultural influences. In this instance, Amaya is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of
nature and nurture.
In one experiment, Wolfgang Köhler watched an ape suddenly solve a problem of reaching bananas hanging from the ceiling by stacking and climbing up a number of crates. Which of the following did Köhler conclude the ape used in problem solving?
The basilar membrane is located in the
The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
Random sampling is to ________ as random assignment is to ________.
Ohio State University pedestrians were more likely to cross streets unsafely if they were talking on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of
Some psychologists believe that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. These representations have been called
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with
A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced with a food pellet only if the rat moves close to the lever. Next, reinforcement is withheld until the rat stands on its hind legs, then until the rat touches the lever, and finally, until the rat presses the lever. This example best illustrates
Which of the following is a binocular cue for the perception of distance?
The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates
Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?
The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
When someone mentions hamburgers, Trisha immediately thinks of McDonald's. In this instance, McDonald's is a
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it
may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.
Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?
informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing
Although Yusef was having difficulty recalling the capital of the Netherlands, he quickly and correctly identified it after being given a list of cities in the Netherlands. Yusef's initial inability to recall the answer was due to a failure in
The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep are called
The ability to simultaneously copy different figures with the right and left hand is most characteristic of those whose ________ has been cut.
Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mothe r. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) ________ perspective.
A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple
The behavioral perspective is most likely to emphasize the importance of
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of
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