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Gravity
Terms in this set (57)
Displacement:
location relative to reference point.
Velocity:
rate of change of displacement.
Acceleration:
rate of change of velocity
Newton's Ist Law:
velocity stays the same unless a force acts.
Newton's 2nd Law:
acceleration is force divided by mass
Newton's 3rd Law:
for every action force there is an equal & opposite reaction force
Newton's Law of Gravity:
force proportional to product of masses, divided by distance squared
Weight:
gravitational force acting on an object.
Normal Force:
perpendicular component of the force that a surface exerts on an object.
Friction:
a force between two surfaces which acts to resist motion
Tension:
a reaction force exerted by a stretched string
Equilibrium system:
zero acceleration, no net external force, (no net Torque.)
Period:
time taken for a motion, such as circular (or SHM), to repeat itself.
Frequency:
number of cycles per second
Angular frequency
number of radians per second (also called angular velocity)
Centripetal acceleration:
acceleration of an object on a circular path
Centripetal Force:
force needed to keep an object on a circular path.
Kepler's 3rd Law:
period of orbiting body squared is proportional to distance cubed.
Work:
is done when a force acts through a distance.
Energy:
the ability to do work
Kinetic Energy:
energy an object has due to its velocity
Potential Energy:
energy an object has due to its position.
Mechanical Energy:
KE plus PE.
Conservative Force:
no work done moving object around a closed path.
Conservation of Mechanical Energy:
stays the same provided there are only conservative forces
5Conservation of Energy:
cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another
Power:
rate of work.
Momentum:
mass multiplied by velocity
Newton's 2nd Law (version 2):
force equals the rate of change of momentum.
Impulse:
change in momentum.
Conservation of Momentum:
total linear momentum stays constant, provided no net external force
Elastic collision:
provided momentum conserved AND KE conserved, clean bounce.
Inelastic collision:
momentum conserved but KE not conserved, objects deform or stick
Torque:
rotational force, perpendicular component of force by distance from turning point.
Centre of Mass:
point at which an extended body's mass appears as if it was concentrated.
Restoring Force:
force which is proportional to displacement but opposite in sign.
Spring Constant:
force required to stretch/compress a spring by one metre
Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM):
motion of object subject to a restoring force
Stress:
force per unit cross-sectional area.
Strain:
fractional increase in length
Young's Modulus:
stress over strain
Density:
mass per unit volume
Pressure:
force per unit area.
Pascal's Principle:
pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is tran smitted undiminished to every point.
Archimedes Principle:
buoyant force equals weight of the displaced fluid.
Temperature
a measure of hotness or coldness related to energy of microscopic particle motions
Heat:
energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body
Coefficient of Linear (Volume) Thermal Expansion:
fractional change in length (volume) per Kelvin
Specific Heat Capacity:
heat required to raise the temperature of lkg of a substanc e by 1K
Specific Latent Heat:
heat required to change the phase of Ikg of a substance without changing temperature
Convection:
change heat transferred by bulk movement of fluid
Conduction:
heat transferred directly through material with out any bulk mov ement.
Thermal conductivity:
a measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat.
Radiation:
heat transferred by electromagnetic waves
Avogadro's Number:
number of atoms in 12g of C-12
Mole:
amount of substance that contains Avogadro's number of particles
Ideal Gas
low density , no interactions between particles , elastic collisions
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