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Terms in this set (101)
Because of the numerous characteristics that they share plants are thought to have envolved from ancient forms of
Plants and the group from which they are thought to be derived have the same photosynthetic pigments which are (a)_______________________________ and they both store excess carbohydrates as (b)_____________________ and have (c) ___________________ as a major component of their cell walls.
(A) chlorophylls a and b and acessory pigments yellow and orange carorenoids (B) starch. (C) cellulose
Plants have a character that distinguishes them from green algae. That characteristic is development from multicellular embroyos enclosed in _______________________
The adaptation of plants of plants to land environments involved a number of important adaptations. Among them was the (a)__________________ that covers aerial parts, protecting the plant against water loss. Openings in the this covering also developed. These (b)________________ facilitate the gas exchange that is necessary for photosynthesis.
(A) waxy cuticle (b) stomata
The carbon used by plants to make sugars and other organic molecules is obtained from __________ present in the atmosphere.
The sex organs of plans or _________ as they are called are multicellular structures containing gametes.
Plants live one part of their lives in a multicellular haploid stage and another part in a multicellular diploid stage. Having two stages to the life cycle is referred to as _______________________
Alernation of generations
The haploid part of the life cycle is called the (a) __________________________ and the diploid part of the life cycle is called the (b)________________________
(A) Gametophyte generation (b) sporophtye generation
In plants the male gametes form in the (a)___________________________ and the female gametes in (b)________________________________
(A) antherida. (B) arrchegonia
In the plant life cycle the first stage in the sporophyte generation is the (a)__________________________ and the haploid (b)_____________________________ are the first stage of the gametophyte generation.
A) zygote (fused ganetes) (b) spores
Molecular data and structural indicate that land plants probably descended from a group of green algae known as ___________________________
Stonewarts ( charophytes)
Of the four major groups of plants only the (a)_______________________ lack a vascular (conducting) system. The two groups that reproduce and disperse primarily via spores are the (b)______________. The (c)____________________ have exposed seeds on a stem or in a cone while the (d)_____________ produce seeds within a fruit.
(A) mosses and other bryophtes (b) bryophtes and seedless vascular plants (c) gymnosperms (d) angiosperms ( flowering plants )
___________________ is a polymer in the cell walls of large, vascular plants that strengthens and supports the plant and its conducting series.
Bryophtes can be seperated into 3 phyla. The phyla are _______________________
Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Each moss plant has tiny, hairlike absorptive structures called ________________________________
In mosses fertilization occurs in the _______________________
The diploid zygote of mosses develops into a mature
After it germinates a moss spore grows into a filament of cells called a ______________________
Among the most important mosses are those with large water storage vacuoles in their cells. These mosses are in the genus (a)___________________________ and are known by their common name the (b)_______________
(A) sphagnum (b) peat mosses
The body of the liverwort is flattened lobed structure called a _____________________
Liverworts reproduce sexually and as sexually. In sexual reproduction the haploid gametangia are called _______________________ ?
Archegonia and antheridia
During the asexual reproduction in liverworts tiny balls of tissue called ____________________ form on the thallus and after they are dispersed by raindrops they will develop into a new liverwort.
Hornworts belong to the phylum __________________ and live in disturbed habitats such as fallow fields and roadsides
A unique feature of hornworts is that the sporophytes continue to grow form their gases for the remainder of gametophyte life. Botanists refer to this characteristic as ______________________________
Botanists use certain bryophytes as experimental models to study ___________ i.e. Plant responses to varying periods of night and day length.
Plants are considered to be a ________________ group
Fossil evidence indicates that __________ are probably the first group of plants to arise from the common plant ancestor
There are two basic types of true leaves the small (a)_________________ with its single vascular strand and the larger (b) __________ with multiple vascular strands. Of these two types of leaves the (c)____________________ represent the majority of leaves we see today.
(A) micophyll (b) megaphyll, (c) megaphyll
The two main clades of seedless vascular plants are(a)__________________________ and (b)____________________________
(A) ferns (b) club mosses
Club mosses were major contributors to our present day ______________________________
In ferns the sporophyte is composed mainly of an underground stem called the (a)_______________ from which extend roots and leaves called (b)____________
(A) rhizone (b) fronds
(A)_______________________ the spore cases of the leaves of the fern, often occur in clusters called (b)__________________. The mature fern gametophyte is tiny green often heart shaped structure called a (c)_______________
(A ) sporangia (b) sori ( c) prothallus
The main organs of photosynthesis in psi lotus are the (a)___________________ that exhibit (b)__________________ branching (dividing into two equal halves)
(A) upright stems (b) dichotomous
The small haploid gametophyte of the whisk fern is a non photosynthetic subterranean plant that apparently obtains nourishment through a symbiotic relationship with a _____________________
Horsetails are found on every continent expect _____________________
The stems of horsetails are impregnated with _______________________
Bryophytes, horsetails, whisk, ferns, and most ferns and club mosses produce only one type of spore a condition known as (a)_________________ some ferns and club mosses exhibit (b)_________________________, the spores are ether (c)_________________________ which develop into male gametophytes or (d)________________ which develop into female gametophytes
(A) homospory (b) heterospory (c) microspores (d) megaspores
The _______________ is the area at the tip of the root or shoot where growth occurs
Microscopic spores of early vascular plants appear in the fossil record earlier than ____________________ suggesting that even older megafossils of simple vascular plants may be discovered.
Yellow plant pigment
Special structure (container) of plants, protists and fungi in which gametes are formed
The female reproductive organ in primitive land plants
The gamete producing stage in life cycle of a plant
The spore producing stage in the life cycle of a plant
A small leaf that contains one vascular strand
A large leaf that contains multiple vascular strands
Special structure (container) of certain plants and protist in which spores and sporelike bodies are produced
Production of one type of spore in plants (all spores are same type)
Production of two different types of spores in plants, microspores and megaspores
Large spore formed in megasporangium
Small spore formed in a microsporgium
Mosses, liverwarts, and their relatives
The study of mosses
A plant body not developed into true roots, stems and leaves
An elongated cone like reproductive structure
Vascular tissue that conducts dissolved organic molecules in plants
A strengthening polymer found in the walls of cells that function for support and conduction
Hair like absorptive structures similar in function to roots that extend from the base of the stem of mosses, liverworts, and fern prothallia
A cluster of sporangia ( in the ferns)
A type of of branching in which the branches or veins always branch into two or more or less equal parts
The heart shaped haploid gametophyte plant found in ferns whisk ferns, club mosses and horsetails
The male gametangium in certain plants
The sex organs of plants
Vascular tissue that conducts water dissolved minerals in plants
A horizontal underground stem
A bryophyte that looks like an internal human organ
Evolved from stem branches that filled in to eventually from leaves
Into gametophyte plants , into a haploid plant , to form a plant body by mitosis
Plants all have
Chlorophyll a and b, xanthophyll, carotene, yellow pigments
A strobilus is
On a diploid, on a vascular plant , found on horsetails
The gametophyte generation of a plant
Is a haploid, produces haploid gametes by mitosis
When a gamete produced by an archegonium fusses with a gamete produced by a male gametophyte
A diploid zygote
Plant sperm cells form in
Haploid gametophyte plants
The leafy green part of moss is the
Gametophyte generation, product of buds from a protonema
The sporophyte generation of a plant
Is diploid, produces haploid spores by meiosis
Are bryophytes, can produce archegonia and antheridia on a haploid gametophyte
The spore cases on a fern are
Usually on the fronds, often arranged in a sorus
The leaves of vascular plants that evolved from stem branches
Are megaphylls, contain more than one vascular strand
Land plants are thought to have evolved from
Green algae, charophytes
Have a cuticle covering the aerial portion of the plant, store starch, develop from multicellular embryos, are a monophyletic group, store starch, evolved from a green algae.
The water conducting portion of the plant vasculature is the
Red algae , green algae, and land plants are collectively classified as
Are found mainly in the tropics and subtropics, are in phylum pteridophyta, should be classified as reduced ferns, have vascularized stems
what are the most important environmental challenges that plants face living on land?
challenges for terrestrial plants include preventing desiccation, obtaining CO2 for photosynthesis without excessive water loss, providing means for sperm and egg to meet and protection of the embryo
what adaptations do plants have to meet these environmental challenges?
the waxy cuticle helps prevent desiccation of the plant body and gas exchange is facilitiated by stomata.
what types of evidence support the hypothesis that land plants descended from the group of green algae known as charophytes?
many lines of molecular eveidence link land plants more closely related to other groups of archaeplastids
(test your understanding) plants probably descended from a group of green algae called
which of the following is NOT a characteristic of plants?
b. unicellular gametangia
d. multi cellular embryo
e. alternation of generations
b. unicellular gametangia
the waxy layer that covers aerial parts of plants is the
a strengthening compound found in cell walls of vascular plants is
allow gas exchange for photosynthesis
which of the following are parts of the gametophyte generation in mosses: antheridia, zygote, embryo, capsule, archegonia, sperm cells, and protonema?
the haploid generation in mosses includes the following: spores, protonema, archegonia, and antheridia
how are mosses, liverworts and hornworts similar? How is each group distinctive?
they all lack vascular tissues and share similar gametophyte dominant life cycles. they most obviously differ in their body forms: mosses- leafy gametophytes, liverworts are thalloid or leafy gametophytes and hornworts- thalloid gametophytes that give rise to sporophytes that exhibt indeterminate growth
what adaptations do ferns have that both algae and bryophtes lack?
unlike algaeand bryophtes ferns have dominant sporophytes that posses vascular tissues as well as stems, leaves (megaphylls) and roots
which of the following are parts of the sporophyte generation in ferns: frond, sperm cells, egg cell, roots, sorus, sporangium, spores, prothallus, rhizome, antheridium, archegonium and zygote?
the diploid sporophtye generation of ferns includes, zygote, roots, rhizome, frond, sorus and sporangium
how does heterospory modify the plant life cycle?
the heterosporous life cycle is characterized by the formation of teo kinds of gametophytes: megaspores (give rise to female gametophytes) and microspores ( give rise to male gametophtes)
include mosses, liverworts and hornworts and they lack a vascular system
the green gametangia-bearing moss plant
is the haploid gametophyte generation
these plants have vascularized stems but lack ture roots and leaves
these plants have hollow jointed stems that are impregnanted with slicia
which of the following statements about ferns is not true?
a. ferns have motile sperms cells that swim through water to the egg containing archegonium
b. ferns are vascular plants
c. ferns are the most econmically important group of bryophytes
d. the fern sporophtye consists of a rhizome, roots, and fronds
e. the diversity of ferns is the greatest in the tropics
c. ferns are the most econmicallty important group of bryophtes
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