ANTH 7a Archaeology Midterm 1

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the sphinx in Egypt can have...both natural and cultural transformsMatrixThe physical medium that surrounds, holds, and supports the archaeology data.Proveniencethe three dimensional location of any archaeological data within the matrixContextconsidering matrix, proveniences and associations, along with the transformational processesAssociationtwo or more bits of archaeological data occurring together in the same matrixPrimary contextideally both provenience and matrix remain undisturbed since the original deposition of the artifactsUse-Related Primary ContextArtifacts from the place where they were acquired, made, or used e.g. workshopTransposed Primary ContextThe deposition of artifacts and ecofacts after being moved from where they were acquired, manufactured, or used -e.g. garbage dumpSecondary ContextProvenience, association, and matrix have been altered by transformational processes -looting, bioturbation, reuse, archaeologists -once primary context has been lost, the original behaviors associated with a particular object are lost foreverRelative Datingan evaluation of the age of one object in comparison to another without reference to an absolute time scaleAbsolute Dating (Chronometric Dating)determining the age of an object with regard to an absolute timescale such as our calendarDirect Datinganalysis of the artifact itself provides the dateIndirect Datinganalysis of the context and associated features, artifacts, and ecofacts provides an estimate of the objects age.Superpositionlower strata are older than upper stratastratigraphythe study of strata and how they develop in order to understand natural and cultural processesRadiocarbon dating-C14 -1 C14 atom exists for every 1.0x10^12 C12 atom -method is based on rate of decay of the carbon 14 -- half life = 5730 years -radiocarbon canNOT be used to date things older than 40,000-50,000 years old or younger than 100 years old -rc dates given in "before present" or BPDomesticationa change in the physical characteristics of the plant or animal involved as a result of human selection -for many ANIMALS the process is a change in size, or form to suit the tasks required of them -for PLANTS, seeds, fruits, leaves, and/or roots are selected to suit human needs. this leads to physical changes. -e.g. wild grain (soft rachis, hard glume) vs. domestic grain (hard rachis, soft glume)The Natural Habitat Hypothesis-domestication took place where people encountered the wild ancestors of domestic plants and animals -"passive"-domestication is beneficial, simply happens over time -this was in the "hilly flanks" of the fertile crescent--places like northern Iraq/Southern Turkey/SyriaGobekli Tepe"Potbelly Hill" 9100-9800 BC originally not thought of as a major site, with further investigation turns out to be a large church and gathering place for hunter-gatherers of that time to come together. -backfilled after 8000 BC -reflects seasonal abundance -No domestication -represents people coming together in early moments before domestication -bathtub-like structures --> maybe used for beer making - look for oxalatesWhy is Gobekli Tepe archaeologically significant?Gobekli Tepe is archaeologically significant for many reasons, one being that it indicates the hunter-gatherers in this society were much more advanced and organized than was originally thought. In this site, motifs on walls of symbols and images show that these people had a language that predated writing and had a complex mythology. The discovery of this site suggests that social systems had been changing before society shifted from hunter-gathering to farming.What were grains like what and barley likely used for at Gobekli Tepe, and what does that suggest to Dietrich and colleagues about the use and function of the site in ancient society?Grains like wheat and barley were likely used for beer brewing at Gobekli Tepe. This is one indication that feasts took place at the site. This means that the site likely functioned as a communal place for hunter-gatherers to work together. The beer brewing may be an indication that this society was slowly transitioning from hunter-gatherers to early farming communities.Earliest Bread14.6-11.6 ka (thousands of years before present) -wheat, rye, milley, oats, maybe barleyThe Population Pressure or "Edge" Hypothesismaybe farming is detrimental, and hunter-gatherers spend far less time producing food than settled farmers -the balance between available food and number of people led to farming -rising populations among settled hunter-gatherers; wild plants and animals less available ("The Edge"); people had to develop farming to sustain the population with a reliable food sourceHealth Effects of Agriculture-physiological stress: stature and enamel hypoplasia -people in large populations are unhealthy -as food insecurity increases, stature (height) decreases -craniofacial changes: tooth crowding, cavities -osteoarthritis -malnutrition: porotic hypertosis -iron deficiency anemia -Elevated infections diseases? e.g. periostitis; syphilis: transmitted in dense populations; tuberculosis: also prevalent in dense populations -elevated warfare and interpersonal violence? -warfare increases with domesticationConsequences of Domestication-less balanced diet, increase in dental carries, anemia, slow growth, decline in average life expectancyThe Social Hypothesis-social benefit to agriculture -settlements become larger and more permanent -land tenure becomes permanent and heritable -leads to social and political changes: -hierarchy: some individuals or groups have institutionalized power over others -ascribed status: status is from birth, not acquired during lifeAbu Hureyra, Syria-next to Euphrates, "hilly flanks" of fertile crescent -10,500-6000 BC -bridges the gap between mesolithic (being settled in villages but still eating wild food) and neolithic (eating domesticated food) periods. -people have become nomadic pastoralists (reliant on domesticates) -200-300 people -in 10500 BC climate cooled and many plants retreated from the site, so people went with the plants -domestication of animals: cattle and pigs -full reliance on domesticated plants and animals took 2500 years -population increased to 2000-3000Jericho-occupied from 10000 BC to present -ritual use of skulls (indicated by headless burials) indicates possibility of ancestor worship -earliest known monumental architecture: large tower 27 ft tall, 30 ft wideCatalhöhük, Turkey7000-6000 BC -neolithic town of 2000 families (twice the size of neolithic Jericho) -"shrine" buildings -beautification of mud walls, use pottery -ritual life, maps, evidence of long-distance tradeMehrgarh(6200 B.C) site in highlands of Iran (near Indus valley), early agricultural site (grew barley & wheat), ceramics, cottonCenters of Domestication in the AmericasI. Mesoamerica: maize, beans, squash II. Andean highlands of South America III. Eastern North America: squash and sunflowersNew World Domesticates: Plantsbeans, peanuts, guavas, pineapples, manioc, vanilla, tomato, cacao, avocados, squash, pumpkins, papayas, potato, chili peppers, tobaccoNew World Domesticates: Animalsdogs, llamas, alpaca, guinea pigs, turkeysGuila Naquitz CaveWhere: Oaxaca, Mexico When: 8750-6670 BC, Archaic Period -evidence for domesticated squash and bottle gourd at 8000 BC -possible ancestral form of maize (Teosinte) also found in the cave -seasonal occupation by non-sedentary bands, leads to domestication in the Americas -this contrasts with Old World patterns of fully settled hunter-gatherers in the MesolithicTehuacan ValleyWhere: Puebla, Mexico When: 12,000 years of occupation (about 5,000 BC in the archaic period) -domesticated corn appears -seasonal occupation only until 2000-1500 BCGuitarrero CaveWhere: Peru When: 6,000 BC -exhibits signs of vertical complementarity, a situation that is fundamental to the Andean civilization -the lima bean, native to the Amazon basic, appears in at 6000 BC -Ají pepper 8500 BC -Oca 8500-7500 BC -Common bean 8000-7500 BC -Lúcuma: 8000-5500 BC -Ulluku 5500 BC -Pumpkin: first appears 7000 BC -Maize around 6200 BCLate Archaic Period1800-700 BC -archaic period in NM lasts much longer than the Mesolithic in the Old WorldPoverty Point, Louisiana-primary mound is more than 66ft high and 655 ft long -late archaic site--Earthworks being built by around 1200 BC -not the earliest site with mounds, but it is the largest Archaic site -postholes on ridge tops indicate that they are living surfaces. Mounds also had possible alignment with equinoxes. -population is sedentary, but wild plants and animals compose primary diet -evidence of cultivation of squash, sunflowers, and some grasses as early as 1500 BC, but farming is not the primary way of life -clay balls used for cooking pits, long distance trade networks established to provide chert for toolsNAGPRA: The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990)-the essentials: any institution that receives any government funding and houses collections of Native American origin must make available a list of those materials -any materials of cultural importance, anything associated with a grave, and the human remains themselves may be claimed by federally recognized Native American or Hawaiian groups, that can prove a cultural affiliation with the remains.Kennewick Man-found during the time of conflict about remains -who is he? what group does he belong to? -9000 years old -determined to be native americanterminology used in eastern US ONLYLate Archaic: Poverty Point (1800-700 BC) Early Woodland: Adena culture (500 BC-AD 500) Middle Woodland: Hopewell Culture (200 BC-AD 600/750) Late Woodland: Mississippian Culture (AD 800-1540)Hopewell Interaction Sphere200 BC- AD 600 -mortuary mounds: sometimes simply round, sometimes in geometric shapes, and sometimes effigy mounds -focus is on the scioto river valley in Ohio but extends to Wisconsin, Missouri, Louisiana, NY -increased dependence on domesticated plants, but continuing use of wild plants and animals--mixed diet -maize appears at about 100 AD, but does not become a significant component of the diet for several hundred years -copper from great lakes -obsidian and bear teeth from Yellowstone -chipped stone from Minnesota -galena from Illinois -shell and sharks teeth from the Gulf of Mexico -mica and quartz crystal from the Appalachian mountains -trade network declines after about AD 400 for unknown reasonsMississippian Culture-after the breakup of the Hopewell Interaction Sphere several important changes take place 1. maize agriculture becomes the predominant way of life in the Mississippi basin by AD 800. Maize probably comes out of the Southwest 2. Wild plants and animals are still a substantial part of the diet, as well as native domesticatesConsidering the context and matrix of the site explain why Ozette is such an important archaeological discoveryOzette is an important archaeological discovery because, being on the Pacific Coast of Oregon, the site has a wealth of resources from both land and sea. The hunter-gatherers who lived there in later pre-history lived in permanent villages, and obtained food by hunting and using canoes to travel some distance to gather seasonal resources and maintain social networks that were not in immediate proximity.Cahokia-first settled around AD 600-800, Cahokia grows to become the biggest thing the Eastern US has ever seen -trade network is soon as big or bigger than the Hopewell interaction Sphere -peak @ AD 1050-1250-- 100 mounds, population of 30,000 -surrounded by a palisade that was both defensive and socially restrictive -the rulers of Cahokia stood at the top of a truly hierarchical society, and dozens of subsidiary centers sent to tribute and received products from this centerMoundville, Alabamacirca AD 1200-1500 -regional mississippian chiefdom that expanded as Cahokia's power splintered -status distinction was dramatic (ascribed rather than achieved status)The Southwestern U.S. and the Ancestral Pueblos-different chronology than eastern woodlands -Hohokam is the O'odham word for "those who have gone" -Anasazi is the Navajo word for ancient enemies/disappeared people -- aka Ancestral Pueblos -trade and exchange of ideas with Mesoamerica to the South evident in Hohokam and Ancestral Pueblo sitesHohokam-settlements were scattered throughout the Sonoran Desert, both in Arizona and New Mexico as well as in Chihuahua and Sonora in Mexico -by AD 1, a Hohokam settlement called Snaketown was growing in the Phoenix basin -pithouses contain grinding stones, growing dependence on maize -as sedentism increased and settlements grew, architectural and ceramic styles became distinguished -by AD 600, # of Hohokam sites increased dramatically -extensive canal irrigation supported intensive agriculture -AD 900: Hohokam pottery reaches the greatest distribution -ballcourts: rubber for balls maybe traded from South -End of Snaketown, rise of Casa grande at AD 1150Casa Grande-largest Hohokam construction -associated with hundreds of houses and ritual structures -classic period: AD 1050/1150-1450 -relied on extensive canal systemAncestral PueblosChaco Canyon -NW corner or New Mexico -AD 100: small settlements w/ pithouses; AD 500: larger settlements -some had kivas: underground chambers used as ceremonial spaces (ritual houses) -settlements were inhabited year round and a distinctive Black-on-white pottery was used. -AD 700: houses built above ground -AD 900: "apartment" complexes aka great houses, 9 in total, Pueblo Bonito is the largest, built AD 919-1115 -don't understand social hierarchyThe Chaco System-reached peak between AD 1020-1130, when 125 planned settlements were linked by a complex road system spanning 20,500 sq. miles -no ball courts; links with Mesoamerica still exist e.g. macaw feathers, copper bells, etcThe End of the Chaco System-mid 12th century, Chaco settlements declined in population -AD 1300: most sites abandonedArchaic Period5000-6500 BCInitial Formative2000-1200 BC -most mesoamericans lived in relatively egalitarian, horticultural villages -advent of agriculture/horticulture, societies become sedentary, which allows accumulation of wealth -individuals no longer need to produce all the food they consume: allows high status individuals to pursue other affairs -farming surplus allows craft specialization: can produce elite/prestige goodsMokaya Culture1800-1350 BC -isthmus of tehuantepec, pacific coast of chiapas and guatemala -best known for paso de la amada (1800-1350 BC) -two-tiered settlement of Central villages with surrounding lesser villagesPaso de la Amada1800-1350 BC -oldest known ballcourt in MesoamericaEarly Formative1200-900 BC -olmecOlmec-olmec is a civilization (Southern gulf coast lowlands of mexico) -olmec is a broad artifact style -beginning around 1200BC: San Lorenzo --> most architecturally complex settlements in Mesoamerica, with Public architecture, and refined art styleSan Lorenzo-major olmec civic-ceremonial center -North-south site plan -10 colossal heads -peak at 1150-900 BC -declines at the end of the Early FormativeOlmec Art-were-jaguar, fire serpent, fluid human forms, infantile features -jade --> green tied to maize, water, and lifeMiddle Formative900-400 BC -growth of large villages across MesoamericaLa Venta-largest, most significant Middle Formative site in the Olmec Area -intentionally buried mosaic floors -Mound A-2 Tomb: 2 juveniles, jade figurines, beads -theme in objectsof ruler emerging from the underworldMesoamerican Writing Systemsby the late preclassic (400 BC - AD 250) writing systems are emerging in many parts of Mesoamerica, but especially from Oaxaca in southern Mexico down to Guatemala. -olmec have an elaborate, codified systemTeotiuacan-peak at AD 100-600 -100,000 to 150,000 people -largest city in the americas at the timeEgnimas of teotihuacan-who were the rulers/where are they buried? -what kind of government? -what language was spoken? -religious beliefs are poorly understood -what did teotihuacan mean for the rest of Mesoamerica?Early Classic period MesoamericaAD 250/300-600 -cultural fluorescence across Mesoamerica -maya, teotihuacan, zapotecs -true urbanism, and state-level societiesAD 300-reduced emphasis on monumental architecture -emphasis on residential architectureTeotihuacan: Temple of the Feathered Serpent-temple to war and rulership -feathered serpent associated with the cycles of Venus -about 260 people sacrificed as a part of its construction (males and females)Teotihuacan: Pyramid of the Sun-second largest pyramid in the New World -originally topped by a superstructure -finished AD 100-150 -two phase constructionTeotihuacan: Moon Pyramid-multiple burialsDieties of Teotihuacan-storm god -aztec tlaloc -war god -great goddess -old god of fireCollapse of Teotihuacan-AD 600: Buring along street of the Dead -rise of other centers in western mesoamerica -some population remained at the siteThe Mayaenvironment: beach, jungle (lots of rainfall), highlands 1. northern lowlands 2. southern lowlands 3. guatemalan highlands 4. pacific coastCeibal, Guatemalabeginning of heirarchical civilization (Maya)El Mirador, Guatemalalargest maya site ever and one of the earliest large citiesSan Bartolo, Guatemalaearliest signs of Maya writing2 Types of Mayan Calendars1. 260 day calendar (tzolkin) -20 day names and 13 numbers 2. 365 day calendar (vague year, haab) -18 months with 20 days each + 5 extra days in an "extra month" -very similar to our own monthsMaya Writing-logosyllabic system: combines logograms (symbols that represent an entire word) and phonetic elements (symbols that represent a recognizable linguistic sound, in this case, a syllable)Piedras Negras-written documents in front of pyramid about rulers life/death -images/scripts of courtly life -many paper books were burned by the spanishMayan Declinelong counts used to determine # of active sites at AD 750 there were a lot, but by 909, there were only a few left -dos pilas, guatemala: built walls to protect city -aguateca: walls were built previously--well protected city, rulers never come back -warfare: symptom of political instability -Aztecsaka Mexica late postclassic: AD 1325-1519 -nahua=language group -nahuatl=specific dialect common in central mexico -mexica=the aztecs that settled tenochtitlan and tlatelocoOrigins of the AztecsMexica -one of the last groups to move into the Basin of Mexico Nahuatl speakers -part of the Uto-Aztecan language group -became lingua franca of much of mesoamerica during late postclassicTenochtitlan-@ 1519 has about 200,000 people at height -connected by causeways to mainland (walling off fresh water from salt water), aqueducts go to island from mainland -"Venice of the new world"Tepanec Warthe triple alliance is formed against the Tepanec capital -tenochtitlan-tlateloco (mexica) -texcoco (acolhua) -tlacopan (tepanec) -tepanecs are defeatedAztec EmpireAD 1440: spread of aztec dominion beyond the Basin of Mexico -strategy: 1. send messengers abroad demanding tribute/labor 2. if tribute/labor refused, war was waged -original rulers left in place -tribute, labor, and sacrifices sent to the capitals of the Triple Alliance -enemies never conquered: Tlaxcalans, TarascansAztec Warfare"flower wars" -prearranged battles -obtain sacrificial victims wars of consequence -subjugation of a city-stateTlatoani"speaker" ruler in central mexican postclassic societyAztec Social OrderHigh status: 1. huetlatoani and his family 2. pipiltin (nobles by birth) Everyone else: 1. Socially promoted commoners 2. pochteca (traders) 3. Macehualtin (commoners) 4. slavesaltepetl"city state" literally "water-mountain" supported by farming villagesTenochtitlan-Tlatelocogrew into one large city -tenochtitlan = administrative capital -tlateloco = marketplaceTemplo Mayorgreat temple -twin towers: rainfall and warfare