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Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life
The key terms from Chapter 2 of the Biology Concepts and Connections textbook, Ninth Edition.
Terms in this set (45)
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means.
A substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Elements that are present in minute quantities within our bodies, making up less than 0.01% of human body weight.
The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
A subatomic particle that has a single positive electrical charge.
A subatomic particle that has a single negative charge.
A subatomic particle that is electrically neutral.
The atoms central core.
The unique number of protons that an element has, giving it a ______ number.
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
This is approximately equal to an atom's mass number in Daltons.
Elements that have the same number of protons as the original element, but have a different amount of neutrons.
An isotope that decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
The area's surrounding a nucleus that house an atom's electrons.
When two atoms have incomplete outer shells, they give up, accept, or share electrons so that both partners end up with completed outer shells.
This is the attraction that is formed from the actual transfer of electrons between atoms.
The sharing of electrons between atoms. Rather than giving up an electron, the atoms share it to complete their outer shells.
Consists of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
This is a measure of an atoms attraction for shared electrons.
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
When two atoms have the same or very similar electronegativity, they share the electrons equally.
Polar Covalent Bonds
When two atoms differ in electronegativity, the negatively charged electrons are drawn to the more electronegative element.
An atom or molecule that has an electric charge resulting from a gain or loss of electrons.
A synonym for an ionic compound.
One of the most important types of weak bonds.
A molecule that has an unequal distribution of charges. For example, water is slightly negative on the oxygen end and slightly positive on the two hydrogen ends, H20.
The breaking of existing chemical bonds to form new ones.
These are the conversions of starting materials in a chemical equation.
These are the resulting material(s) that come from the conversions of starting materials.
This is the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together.
The clinging of one substance to another.
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
The energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules.
Thermal energy that is in transfer from a warmer to a cooler body of matter.
Measures the intensity of heat, or the average speed of molecules in a body of matter.
This occurs when the molecules with the greatest energy, or the "hottest" ones, leave a body of matter.
A liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances.
The dissolving agent.
A substance that has been dissolved.
A solution where water is the solvent.
A substance that donates hydrogen atoms to a solution.
A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
A scale we use to describe how acidic or basic a solution is. It ranges from 0, the most acidic, to 14, the most basic.
These are substances that minimize changes in pH.
This is CO2 that dissolves in seawater, causing the pH of the ocean to lower.
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