DSST Human Resource Management
Terms in this set (254)
An integrated knowledge within an organization that sets it out from the competition.
Includes the social environment of the workplace and informal work groups.
A written description of the basic tasks, duties, minimum required experience, and responsibilities required of an employee holding a particular job.
The process of screening, interviewing, and hiring individuals.
Includes hourly wages, salaries, and bonuses.
Includes other employee benefits, such as health insurance, pension contributions, tuition reimbursement, and legal assistance programs.
The different conditions upon which someone leaves a company; may be voluntary or involuntary.
The working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships; they help eliminate job satisfaction, but do not motivate the employee according to the two-factor theory.
The need for achievement, recognition, responsibility, and growth; they both eliminate job dissatisfaction and stimulate motivation.
Reward given for desired behavior.
Removal of something unpleasant for desire behavior.
Giving something unpleasant for an undesired behavior.
Withdrawal of a reward.
When every desired behavior is reinforced; effective when the behavior is new.
When some of the desired behavior is reinforced. Can be classified into four groups: fixed-interval, fixed-ratio, variable-interval, and variable-ratio.
Rewards according to a specific time interval. Results in average and irregular performance.
Rewards after a specific number of desired behaviors. Results in high or stable performance.
Rewards according to random times. Results in moderately high and stable performance.
Rewards according to a random number of behaviors. Results in very high performance.
The ability to influence people to achieve goals for the organization.
Leadership dependent upon one's position within the company.
Leadership based on the control that management has over rewarding subordinates.
Leadership based on the control that management has over punishing subordinates.
Power based on individual expertise.
Power derived from the degree in which one is admired and people want to emulate them.
authoritarian leadership type
Characterized by dictatorship that dismisses input from team members; decides the term of tasks and who will perform the work to be done.
democratic leadership type
Characterized by an open-line communication between workers and management; values team-input, and facilitates group cooperation without being overly active within the group.
laissez-faire leadership type
Hands-off approach over all decision-making without any further involvement unless asked to participate.
A leader that clarifies roles, initiates structure, provides rewards, and is considerate of employees; fair, hardworking, and tolerant; emphasizes job-oriented(not personal) needs.
A leader that has an ability to motivate employees to go beyond expectations; less predictable than transactional and embrace new ideas. Charismatic leaders are visionaries; they try to get others to see a better future and their participation in it.
A leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group; characterized by the ability to bring innovation.
A leader who works to fulfill subordinates' needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization's larger mission; the needs of others are placed above the leader's own needs.
A code of moral principles and values that govern organizational behavior.
utilitarian ethical decision
A decision based on the principle that the behavior that causes the greatest good for the most is ethical.
individualistic ethical decision
A decision based on the long-term interests of an individual.
social contract ethical decision
A decision based on existing norms.
moral rights ethical decision
A decision that considers humanity's fundamental rights.
justice ethical decision
A decision based on total impartiality.
preconventional moral development
The first level of moral development, in which people make decisions based on selfish reasons; concerned only with external rewards or punishments. A characteristic of managers with authoritarian and coercive styles.
conventional moral development
The second level of moral development in which people make decisions that conform to societal expectations. A characteristic of managers who encourage work collaboration.
postconventional moral development
The third level of moral development in which people make decisions based on internalized principles, beliefs, and values. A characteristic of managers that encourage to think for themselves and engage in moral reasoning.
Basic individual beliefs about right and wrong.
Strength of person's convictions. The higher it is, the more likely one will follow what they believe is ethical in lieu of following unethical impulses.
The degree in which an individual believes they have control of their fate.
Belief that things happen due to luck or chance.
Belief that things happen due to their own responsibility.
Long-term(5 years +) planning reserved for the highest levels of management.
Identification of future candidates for future anticipated vacancies.
Involves determining the type and number of individuals needed to get the job done.
functional job analysis (FJA)
Quantitative approach to job analysis that assumes all parts of the job relate to data, people, and things.
position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
194-point questionnaire with five-point scale to determine the degree in which tasks are performed.
critical incident method
Method of performance measurement based on managers' records of specific examples of the employee acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective.
computerized job analysis
Various software programs that write job description and specifications based on job analysis.
Improvement of job efficiency by simplifying it.
A method of moving the employee to different jobs for variety, designed to prevent boredom of repetitive tasks.
A process to make the job more complex to improve the level of boredom of an oversimplified job.
A use of motivators to increase satisfaction.
A concept Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham formulated after researching job design, focusing on three main parts: core job dimensions, critical psychological states, and employee growth need.
The knowledge, skills, and abilities required for the job.
human resource planning
The matching of people with future vacancies.
Defining the characteristics that the organization feels would be a good fit for the vacancies. To recruit, an organization must conduct job analysis, provide a job description, and give job specification.
Understanding the duties of the job.
Hiring through searching and evaluating internal job postings and existing employee files.
An interview based on a set group of questions so to be compared answers across all candidates. Questions are asked based on job knowledge, job simulation, situational, and work willingness.
An interview that may have no format at all or have open ended questions, but makes it difficult to compare candidates.
An interview that places the applicant in a simulated high stress setting to interview the candidate.
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
A procedural document designed by the federal government to assist in hiring, promotion, transfer, demotion, dismissal, and referrals.
Rejection of a higher percentage of protected classes for employment; unintentional discrimination.
Selection of the minority is less than 80 percent of the time, used as a rule of thumb in determining adverse impact.
Evidence suggesting selection precludes members from protected classes.
McDonnell Douglas Test
Test used by courts to assess merits of prima facie case of disparate treatment when lacking evidence
requires plaintiff to show he:
1. belongs to protected group,
2. has applied and is qualified,
3. was rejected despite qualifications, and
4. the position remained open after rejection as was filled by someone not of the protected group with the same qualifications.
Voluntary or involuntary reductions in labor.
RIF that include some type of severance pay and extension of benefits for a predetermined period of time.
RIF that is composed of lay-offs, either across the board or through company reorganization that result in fewer available positions.
An intent to resign from a company that is typically expressed in written communication to the employee's manager.
A resignation in which an employee chooses to resign without provocation from the employer.
A resignation suggested by the employer to the employee.
Separation that is typically planned well in advanced, and are well received, celebratory occasions.
A succession of linked jobs that prepares a worker for advancement to the next job in the chain.
vertical career path
A career path that is hiearchical in nature and consists of interdependent sequential jobs.
horizontal career path
A career path that is not sequentially interdependent but each of the jobs in the arrangement must be completed before one can advance to the next higher level.
Advancing to the next level in the minimum time required in the current position.
A time when the individual stops advancing before reaching the next highest level. It is not necessarily a failed effort because not everyone is promoted to the top position and many common career paths are not designed to lead to the top.
An organization that is participatory in problem solving, improving, and increasing capabilities.
Teaching short-term skills. May be "on-the-job" or "off-the-job".
Teaching long-term skills.
Encourages teamwork and knowledge transfer among employees.
A pay attached to acquiring new knowledge or skills.
The on-the-job method of development for new employees. May be formal or informal.
Traditional approach to appraisal, a review by management one level higher.
Evaluating self, considering one's own strengths and weaknesses. Best used for developmental purposes.
Performance appraisal by an employee of their superior. Usually evaluates on leadership, oral communication, delegation of authority, coordination of team efforts, and interest in subordinates.
Performance appraisal done by fellow employees, usually combined by the manager into a single profile for use. May be the most accurate, but not used due to popularity copntests.
Performance appraisal that recognizes team accomplishement instead of individual performance, used by companies with a strong total quality management (TQM) emphasis.
Performance appraisal that seeks evaluation from internal and external customers.
The combination of various appraisal systems to give the manager and employee the best view into the performance.
An appraisal error involving groups of ratings given to employees.
An appraisal error based on biases of how the information is selected, evaluated, or organized.
error of central tendency
An appraisal distributional error where the rater is reluctant to give high or low marks.
error of leniency or strictness
An appraisal distributional error where the appraiser gives their employees unusually high or low marks.
An appraisal temporal error when the evaluation is based upon the employee's most recent behavior.
An appraisal temporal error when the employee is compared to someone previously rated and not independently.
similar to me error
An appraisal temporal error in which the appraiser inflates the evaluation because of a mutual connection.
trait performance appraisal method
Measure the extent which someone has characteristics. Relatively inexpensive, but high potential for errors, and not useful in allocating rewards or promotions.
behavioral performance appraisal method
Identifies the actions that should or should not be seen on the job, used mainly for developmental feedback..
results performance appraisal method
Focus on the employee's achievements; less subjective, acceptable for employees and supervisors, link individual performance with organizational goals, encourage goal setting, and are good for reward and promotion decisions. However, time consuming and encourages short-term goals.
graphic rating scale
Rating based on having certain characteristics.
mixed-standard rating scale
Rating based on comparison than a standard.
Requires the rater to choose from statements that best describe the employee's output.
A trait method that requires the rater to describe the employee's performance in a statement.; fairly subjective and reliant on the manager's ability to write effective statements.
A behavioral method that notes an unusual event that identifies superior or inferior performance by the employee.
The rater checks statements on a list that he believes are characteristic of the employee.
behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)
Consists of vertical scales for each dimension of employee's performance.
behavior observation scales (BOS)
Measures the frequency of observed behavior.
Can directly align employees with the organizational goals, with evaluation based on profits, sales, etc.
management by objectives (MBO)
Rates performance of employee achievement of goals set by manager and the employee.
balanced scorecard (BSC)
Helps manager translate measurement framework from strategic to operational goals.
An extremely hard goal, but not impossible to reach.
tell and sell appraisal interview
An attempt by the employer to alter the behavior of the employee by persuasion and motivational incentives.
tell and listen appraisal interview
A communication of strong and weak points of the employee's performance, and then in which the employee responds with his feelings about the appraisal.
problem solving appraisal interview
A step beyond tell and sell; stimulation of growth of the employee by discussing problems, needs, innovations, satisfactions, and dissatisfactions since last appraisal.
A problem in appraisal in which an employee is given the same grade on all dimensions based on a few attributes.
A problem in evaluation due to being compared to someone previously evaluated.
Method that determines the relative worth of jobs.
job ranking system
The oldest and simplest job evaluation that is based on grouping the jobs based on their relative worth to one another; can only be used on a small number of jobs.
job classification system
Job evaluation based on classification of jobs in groups of predetermined wage grades. This is what the federal government uses.
Quantitative job evaluation that determines the value based on the points assigned to it; uses the point manual.
factor comparison system
Evaluation based on factor-by-factor of development and comparison. Comparison against key jobs within the organization.
Hay profile method
A method that evaluates based on:
3. Mental Activity
wage and salary survey
The survey of the wages paid to employees with similar skill sets in a labor market. The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes a reliable one.
competence based pay
Pay based on skills and increased job knowledge. Also called skilled based or knowledge based pay.
Collapses traditional salary grades into a few wide bands and helps eliminate obsession with grades and gives management an enhanced ability to reward on performance.
consumer price index (CPI)
Cost of living that measures the average prices of products and services over time.
Compensation useful in advancing organizational goals.
pay for performance standard
Compensation tied to a reward for effort and performance.
How an employee perceives his compensation relative to others within the organization.
Breeds mistrust in the workplace; fairly excepted practice in private industry.
Pay by the hour.
Pay according to the number of units produced.
Pay is the same each pay period regardless of hours worked.
A flexible benefit plan for the employee, letting them choose the benefits best suited to their personal needs and situation.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
Act that provides individuals and dependents who may lose medical coverage with opportunity to pay to continue coverage.
Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA)
Act that amended age discrimination in employment to include all employee benefits; also provided terminated employees with time to consider group termination or retirement programs and consult an attorney.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
Organization of healthcare professionals that provide services on a prepaid basis; seen as lower quality to the employee.
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)
Group of healthcare providers that guarantee lower healthcare costs to the employer; seen as a higher quality to the employee.
Medical savings account (MSA)
A medical insurance plan that the employer contributes to meet the needs of the individual's medical needs.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
When twelve months have been worked at an employer with health insurance, a worker can transfer to another employer with no regard to preexisting conditions.
Long-term disability (LTD) insurance
Insurance that pays for nursing homes and medical-related costs to old age and illness.
Supplemental unemployment benefits (SUBS)
An employer-created fund for laid off employees to draw from on top of unemployment benefits.
Employee assistance programs (EAP)
Services provided for workers to deal with problems that interfere with how they do their jobs.
Guarantee of benefits, especially in pension plans.
contributory pension plan
A pension plan in which both employer and employee fund pensions.
noncontributory pension plan
A pension plan in which only the employer funds pensions.
defined benefit plan
A pension plan in which the amount is specific.
defined contribution plan
A pension plan in which amount of benefits are based on how much is in their account at time of retirement.
401(k) savings plan
A pension plan in which the main source of retirement funds today, some employers will match contributions to a certain percentage.
cash balance pension plan
A pension plan in which the employer contributes percentage of employer pay to an account that earns interest. When the employee leaves, the amount is rolled up into an individual retirement account (IRA).
An early retirement incentive in a form of a cash bonus or increased pension.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1970. A law passed to attempt to reduce workplace injuries and illnesses. It's general area of responsibility are:
voluntary protection program (VPP)
A program that encourages employers to go beyond the minimum requirements outlined by OSHA. It includes three:
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Documents that contain the main information about hazardous material.
OSHA form 300
A form in which accidents that cause death, illness, or injury in the workplace are recorded.
Positive stress that makes some strive to accomplish something.
Harmful stress that accompanies a feeling of insecurity.
Causes loss of productivity, frustration, or depression.
Right for an employer to terminate an employee for no reason and for the employee to resign for the same.
Reporting criminal activity to the government.
An situation in which an employer makes work life so difficult for the employee that they have no choice but to resign.
1. Treatment that punishes
2. Orderly behavior in an organization
3. Training that corrects undesirable behavior and develops self control
To discipline by being effective, consistent, and applied to all equally.
1. Documentation of Misconduct
2. Investigative Interview
3. Application of Discipline
alternative resolution procedure (ARD)
Different types of employee complaint resolution procedures.
Discipline based on corrective measures of increasing degree. Most commonly used.
1. Oral Warning
2. Written Warning
3. Suspension without Pay
Discipline focused on early correcion of employee misconduct.
1. Conference between employee and supervisor.
2. Second conference when solution did not work
3. Decision-making leave (paid leave)
Minorities in the workplace.
Civil Rights Act
1964, amended in 1972, 1991, and 1994. Broadest and most significant law affecting employment opportunity rights.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
1967. No discrimination based on ages of people over 40. No pressure for older to retire; no terminating only older employees when downsizing;
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)
Only suitable defense against discrimination; postulates that age, religion, sex, or nationality is an actual qualification for the job. It does NOT cover race or color.
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
1972. Extended Civil Rights Title VII to government workers.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act
1978. No discrimination based on pregnancy, childbirth, and related conditions.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
1990. Employers cannot discriminate against people with physical or mental capabilities, and must make reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities or religious preferences.
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Act
1994. Jobs are protected for those that go on short military service.
Executive Order 11246
Federal agencies and government contractors must comply with anti discrimination practices. Created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) to enforce this.
Immigration Reform and Control Act
1986. Used to control the hiring, recruiting, or referring of people not eligible to work in the US. Uses the form I-9.
A report companies with 100 or more employees must fill out annually to determine workforce composition.
generalized sexual harassment
Sexual remarks or actions not targeted at a specific individual.
inappropriate sexual harassment
Sexual harassment that is nonthreatening, but causes co-worker discomfort.
solicitation sexual harassment
Sexual harassment that uses rewards; potential for criminal prosecution.
coercive sexual harassment
Threat of power in order to convince someone to engage in sexual activity.
criminal sexual harassment
Highest level of sexual harassment and would result in a punishable act under the law.
quid pro quo harassment
Harassment based on employment decisions; an economic or position consequence for noncompliance.
An uncomfortable environment that interferes with job performance.
Official discrimination complaint to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), filled by employee.
Means that people employed in an organization represent different cultural groups and human qualities.
strategic diversity management
Diversity as a result of acquisitions and mergers, which is a forced diversification of the workplace.
managing workforce diversity
Seeking to minimize ethnocentrism and moving toward pluralism and ethnorelativism.
diversity awareness training
Training designed to make people recognize and address their own prejudices.
Developed in response to a majority dominating the workforce.
1931. Required federal contracts for construction to specify minimum wage for workers.
1936. Responsible for prevailing minimum wage in a locality. Regular working hours identified as 8 per day and 40 per week; and time and a half for additional; no employment for convicts and children.
Equal Pay Act
1963. Amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act. No discrimination of pay, benefits, or pension based on gender.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
1974. Main federal legislation responsible for controlling employee benefit and retirement plans.
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
1993. Applies to employers with fifty or more employees. Paternal and maternal leave covered under this act.
Worker Adjustment and Restraining Notification (WARN)
Law that affects employers with one hundred or more employees and requires the employer to give advance notice of at least sixty days when a plant closing or mass layoff is planned.
Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
1935. Referred to as the Magna Carta of Labor. Guarantees the right to form labor movements.
Taft-Hartley Act (Labor Management Relations Act)
1947. Pro-business act created to counter the pro-labor Wagner Act by banning unfair practices of labor unions. Created the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) to help resolve grievances.
1959. Specially tailored to make labor officials responsible for the union's financial affairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing. Also called Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act.
1914. No forbidding the existence of a union.
Railway Labor Act
1926. Required employers to collectively bargain with unions. In 1936, amended to include airlines.
Norris-La Guardia Act
1932. Labor legislation that outlawed "yellow dog" contracts and forbade federal courts from issuing injunctions to restrain strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing.
Statement authorizing union to act as their representative.
Unpaid union official that represents the employees when dealing with management.
A neutral third party that will make the binding decision between both parties.
Binding document with terms or conditions or rules.
Union must represent union and nonunion members equally.
Home country nationals that are employees who live and work in a different country than their own.
The act of returning to the country of origin after an international assignement.
balance sheet approach
Compensation system that equals American money to foreign money on terms of purchasing power.
host country nationals
Host country natives that are employees. Usually is shifted to because it is cheaper, gives a good impression on locals, and no adjustment to culture.
Employees that are not from the home or host country.
A personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.
equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws
Laws that prevent discrimination in the workplace.
Society for Human Resource Management
An organization that has generated a list of recommendation for executing an effective diversity initiative.
human resource information system
Systems that provide data for Human Resource control and decision making.
A group of people that rely primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing goals.
employment at home while communicating with the workplace by phone or fax or modem
A group with mix of specialists that are assigned rather than voluntary membership.
Group specifically to provide a new product or service.
Highly trained workers that are a group that perform interdependent tasks.
Team formed to solve a major organizational issue.
process improvement team
Group assigned with improving quality.
The number of days in the work week is shortened and the hours per day are longer.
Flexible working hours that allow workers to choose start and end times.
Two part-time employees share one full time position.
employee involvement (EI) groups
Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems and improve the organization.
Bottom level of Maslow's hierarchy. Includes shelter, food, sleep, breaks, and compensation.
Second level of Maslow's hierarchy. Includes security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, health, and posterity.
Third level of Maslow's hierarchy. Includes friendship, family, and interaction.
Fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy. Includes self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of and by others.
Highest level of Maslow's hierarchy. Includes morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, and acceptance of facts.
Theory Z people, those that have reached the self-actualization phase.
Not reporting to work.
The idea that people with authority are subject to reporting to superiors.
Test that measure what a person can do right now.
Listening to understand without judgment.
The curve in the scattergram that identifies the worth of jobs and wages.
Groups of jobs within a class that are paid the same. Used by the federal government.
Belief that one culture is superior to another.
Accommodation of several cultures.
Idea that all cultures are inherently equal.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
1938. Provided basic pay structure for workers. Those that have to be paid are non-exempt and must be paid at least the minimum wage. Those who hold executive or managerial positions are exempt.
Measures what a person is capable of learning.
red circle rates
Payment rates above the pay range.
A group of 6-12 that meet regularly to discuss organizational issues.
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