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Certified Specialist of Spirits
Terms in this set (280)
What are the 3 byproducts of sugar in fermentation?
CO2, alcohol, heat
Boiling Point of Water vs Alcohol
What are the 5 things a fermented liquid contains?
water, acid, aldehydes, esters, and congeners
What is fractional distillation?
The separation and concentration of two or more liquids with different boiling points
What counts as a congener?
Acids, aldehydes, esters, fusel oils, other alcohols
Define Heads, Hearts, Tails
1. Heads - first portion of distillate to come off of the still (AKA Foreshots)
-Generally re-distilled or disposed of
2. Tails - last portion of distillate to come off of the still
-Also non-potable - sometimes poisonous
-Generally redistilled or disposed of
3. Hearts - Center portion of the distillate
-Main focus of the distiller
-Contains preferred Congeners
What are the four types of stills?
Pot still, hybrid still, column still, multiple column still
What are the two parts of a pot still?
Still and worm condenser
What is a worm condenser?
A spiral metal tube connected to a still by a metal pipe that passes through a cold water jacket to aid in rapid condensation
What is the approximate ABV of first batch run through a pot still?
known as Brouillis
What range of ABV can a pot still distill to?
What is a reflux?
Controls what elements pass on to condenser vs. returning to still to be redistilled
What does a liquid return contain?
A mixture of condensate water and some wash with alcohol in it
What does the analyzer part of a column still contain?
Stripping section and rectifying section
What is another name for a multiple column still?
What does a hydroselector column do?
Adds hot water to a spirit in a purifier column and permits the volatile components of liquid to vaporize easier
What is an advantage of a hybrid still?
Simplicity of design, construction, and operation
What is a disadvantage of a hybrid still?
Lower distillation efficiency
What are the 6 processes in barrel maturation?
Extraction, evaporation, oxidation, concentration, filtration, and coloration
What happens in extraction step of maturation?
Interior of barrel is toasted or charred to allow water and alcohol to extract aromas and flavors
What happens in evaporation step of maturation?
Approximately 3% loss of alcohol, so the spirit proof reduces over time
What happens in oxidation step of maturation?
Oxygen fills the barrel space and dissolves in the alcohol, creating aromatics
What happens in filtration step of maturation?
Charcoal acts as a filter
What happens in coloration step of maturation?
Charring process turns spirit reddish brown, color darkens over time
Where does American White Oak come from?
What do tannins add to a spirit?
Add coconut flavored lactones and volatile phenolic acids
What does the US require vodka to be distilled to?
At or above 190 proof (95% ABV)
What does the EU require vodka to be made of?
Potatoes, cereal, other agricultural raw materials
What ABV does the EU require vodka to be bottled at?
37.5% ABV (75 proof)
Do EU regulations of vodka allow for base materials other than potatoes or grain?
Yes, but must be noted on the label
What is ethyl laureate?
Congener that adds fruity and floral aromas
What are ethyl palmitate and myristate?
Congeners that add waxy flavor and character
What is Russia's base vodka ingredient?
What is Poland's base vodka ingredient?
Rye or potato
What flavors do wheat and barley based vodkas have?
Highly acidic and lighter in body
What is Pertsovka?
Russian vodka flavored with red chili pepper
What is Zubrowka?
Polish vodka flavored with bison grass for a floral, herbal and sweet taste
What is Okhotnichya?
Russian vodka flavored with spices such as ginger, citrus peel, black pepper, cloves, etc. and traditionally blended with fortified wine
What is Kubanskaya?
Russian vodka flavored with dried lemon and orange peel
What is Krupnik?
Polish vodka flavored with honey and herbs
What ABV does EU require flavored vodka to be bottled at?
37.5% ABV (75 proof)
What processes does EU allow flavored vodka to go through?
Sweetening, blending, maturation, or coloration
What is the world's most consumed spirit?
What is Baijiu?
Chinese spirit commonly made from sorghum
What is the base ingredient in Baijiu?
Sorghum, can use barley, millet, or rice
At what ABV is Baijiu typically bottled?
How is conversion of starch to liquor done with Baijiu?
Compressing mash of base product into bricks and storing in damp environment to create mold spores and yeast
What is qu?
Fermentation agent in Baijiu, made from mash stored in damp environments creating mold spores and yeast
What is Moutai?
Type of Baijiu made with sorghum and wheat qu that goes through 7 cycles of fermentation and distillation
What is Erguotou?
Type of Baijiu associated with Beijing
What is Luzhou Laojiao?
Type of Baijiu known for complexity and unique aromas attributed to yellow clay cellars
What is Wallungye?
Called five grain drink, produced using sorghum, corn, wheat, rice, and glutinous rice
Where is Shochu made?
What does Shochu use as base products?
Barley, buckwheat, rice, or sweet potatoes, can also use molasses or sugar
How long is Shochu aged?
From 1 month - 3+ years
What is bottling strength of Shochu?
What is koji?
Mold fermentation agent used in Shochu
Most common koji, subtle and sweet taste
Used to make sake, lush and fruity taste
Extracts most character from base product, highest quality
What is most common type of Shochu?
What is Moromi?
Low alcohol mash distilled to make Shochu
What is Kasutori?
Type of Shochu made from left over lees from fermentation of Sake
Where is Soju made?
What ingredients do Sojus distill from?
Rice, barley, wheat
What is most common brand of Soju?
What is ABV range for Soju?
What 5 procedures can gin be produced from according to US?
Original distillation of mash, redistillation of distilled spirits, mixing neutral spirits with juniper berries and other aromatics, mixing neutral spirits with extracts, mixing gin and neutral spirits
What ABV does US require gin to be bottled at?
Minimum 40% ABV
What ABV does EU require gin to be bottled at?
Minimum 37.5% ABV
What are most common base ingredients in gin?
Cereal grains, sugarcane, potatoes, sugar beets
What are examples of seed/been botanicals?
Aniseed, caraway, cardamom, cocoa, coriander, juniper, vanilla bean
What are examples of herb botanicals?
Angelica, chamomile, hyssop, marjoram, mint, rosemary, sage
What are examples of bark botanicals?
Cassia, cinnamon, quinine
What are examples of root botanicals?
Fennel, ginger, orrisroot, licorice root
What are examples of "other" botanicals?
Almond, calamus, clove, gentian
What does orrisroot add to spirits?
Floral aromas of violets
What does calamus add to spirits?
Substitute for ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg
What does cardamom add to spirits?
Smoky, mint, camphor, floral, resinous, grapefruit
What does cassia add to spirits?
Cinnamon, resin, pungent
What does gentian add to spirits?
Very bitter and aromatic
What does hyssop add to spirits?
Herbal, minty, bitter
What is distilled gin?
Gin produced using original distillation or redistillation
What is circulatory cold compounding method?
Mesh tray of botanicals is suspended in large tank and base spirit is repeatedly pumped over it
How is flavoring created in London Dry Gin?
Through distillation or redistillation
What is style of Plymouth Gin?
Clear in color, full bodied texture with fruity aromas and aromatic juniper berry
At what ABV must flavored gin be bottled?
Minimum 30% ABV
What is Steinhager produced with?
Triple distilled grain spirit, neutral spirit, and juniper berry distillate
What is style of ouide Genever?
Straw colored, relatively sweet, malty, no aging required
What is style of jonge Genever?
Drier and lighter in body
Where is PGI of Genever?
Netherlands, Belgium, 2 areas in France, some areas in Germany
What is Wacholder?
Classic juniper flavored German drink
What is suma?
Base of Raki made when must from sultana grapes is fermented into wine and distilled
What is Pastis?
Dry anise based spirit containing fennel, licorice root, and 48 other botanicals
What is Ouzo?
Greek apertif flavored with anise, cloves, cinnamon, other spices, mainly known as a sweetened spirit
Where is Pacharan produced?
North of Spain - Navarra, La Rioja, Spanish Basque Country)
How long is Pacharan soaked for?
At what ABV is Pacharan bottled?
Where is Akavit produced?
What is main flavor in Akavit?
What neutral spirit does Germany use to make Akavit?
What neutral spirit does Norway use to make Akavit?
What neutral spirit do Sweden and Denmark use to make Akavit?
Grain and potato
What can clear akavit be called?
What akavit is unique to Norway?
What countries have PGIs for akavit?
Denmark and Sweden
At what ABV do US standards require whiskey distillation?
Minimum 95% ABV
At what ABV do US standards require whiskey bottling?
Minimum 40% ABV
How do US Standards define grain spirits?
Neutral spirits distilled from fermented mash of grain and stored in oak containers
How do US Standards define straight whiskey?
Must be a bourbon, rye, wheat, malt, rye malt, or corn whiskey stored for a minimum of 2 years
At what ABV do EU standards require whiskey distillation?
Maximum 94.8% ABV
At what ABV do EU standards require whiskey bottling?
Minimum 40% ABV
What are 5 steps of mash and wort preparation for making whiskey?
Malting, Kilning, Milling, Mashing, Washing
Where is washing used?
Scotland and Ireland
What is mash or wort?
Sugary liquid that is washed from malt during whiskey production
What is Scotch fermented in?
Washbacks - large, closed containers that hold up to 50,000 liters
How long does mash fermentation take while making whiskey?
What is largest category of whiskey?
What is Scotch distilled to?
No more than 94.8% ABV
What are allowed additives in Scotch?
Water and caramel coloring
What are the five categories of Scotch?
Single malt, single grain, blended malt, blended grain, blended scotch
What is single malt scotch?
premium scotch distilled at one distillery by pot still distillation made with only malted barley
What is single grain scotch?
distilled at a single distillery with other malted and unmalted grains other than barley
What is blended malt scotch?
blend of two or more single malt that have been produced at more than one distillery
What is blended grain scotch?
blend of two or more single grains that have been produced at more than one distillery
What is blended Scotch?
blend of one or more single grain with one or more single malt scotches
What brands come from the Scottish Highlands?
Dalmore, Glenmorangie, Dalwhinnie
What is Scottish Highland style?
Wide range but typically entry level, sweet, soft and not as complex
What locations are included in the Scottish Highlands?
Islands of Mull, Orkney, Jura, Lewis, Skye
What brands come from the Scottish Lowlands?
Glenkichie, Ailisa Bay, Cameronbridge
What is Lowland Scotch style?
Typically triple distilled, lighter style with grassy notes, subtlety, and light, dry finish
What is Speyside style?
Some complex and smooth, some lighter scotches
What are some Speyside brands?
Glenfiddich, Glenlivet, Macallan
What is Islay style?
Medium to heavy peat, briny, seaweed taste
Where is Islay located?
Southernmost western island
What are some Islay brands?
Lagavulin, Ardbeg, Laphroaig
What is a Campbeltown brand?
What are Campbeltown scotches known for?
Slight saltiness due to mists coming in from the sea
What is Irish Grain Whiskey?
Continuously distilled from unmalted grains, lighter and more neutral style used in blends
What is Irish single malt whiskey?
produced entirely from malted barley and distilled in pot still
What is Irish pot still whiskey?
produced from mixture of malted and unmalted barley and completely distilled in pot still
What is blended irish whiskey?
blend from at least two distilleries, most important of the irish whiskeys
What is sour mashing?
Some residue from first distillation (backset) is placed back in fermenter for the next run
Why is backset important?
Light alkaline content water would negatively affect yeast without backset acid, creates consistant product
What is the doubler?
Addition to pot still that continuously recieves condensed low wines and drives them to chamber containing heated liquid, doubling alcohol content and refining congeners
What is a thumper?
Type of doubler that causes ethanol vapors to continue through water for condensation
What does a few years of aging do to a whiskey?
Add vanila, sweet toast, and caramel flavors
What is allowed in blended bourbon?
Coloring, flavoring, or other spirits
What is blended american whiskey?
Contains straight whiskey (51%+) blended with light whiskey or neutral spirit
What is American light whiskey?
Distilled to higher proof (160-190), used for blending, required to be aged in used or uncharred new oak
What is Spirit Whiskey?
Mixture of neutral spirits and no less than 5% whiskey or straight whiskey (less than 20%)
What Japanese distillery makes Scotch style whisky?
What ABV does US require brandy to be distilled at?
What ABV does US require brandy to be bottled at?
What is neutral brandy allowed to be distilled at?
minimum 170 proof
What ABV does EU require brandy to be distilled at?
What ABV does EU require brandy to be bottled at?
What are EU aging requirements for brandy?
minimum 1 year in oak
What is fruit spirit according to EU?
Spirit made from fruit with no required aging, distilled at less than 86% ABV, bottled at 37.5% ABV minimum
What is marc spirit?
Pomace brandy that doesn't need aging
What are the 6 crus of Cognac?
Grande champagne, petite champagne, borderies, fins bois, bons bois, bois ordinerres
What grapes can be used to make Cognac?
Ugni blanc, folle blanche, colombard
What still is Cognac produced in?
What is the two stage Cognac production process called?
What is the first stage of the Cognac production process called?
What is the 2nd stage of the Cognac production process called?
What is the Remy Martin method?
leaves lees in wash to impart richer character to spirit and allow longer aging
What is the Martell Method?
discards lees to create lighter spirit
Where is brandy stored?
Warehouse called a chai
How long is VSOP cognac aged?
4 years minimum
How long is XO cognac aged?
6 years minimum
How long is extra cognac aged?
6 years minimum
How long is vielle reserve cognac aged?
6 years minimum
How long is hors d'age cognac aged?
6 years minimum
What is flavor profile of Armangac?
Rustic, full aroma and flavor, round texture
What are 3 crus of Armagnac?
Bas-Armagnac, Tenareze, Haut Armagnac
What is Bas Armagnac?
Highest quality cru of Armagnac
What is Tenareze?
Central growing area, cru of Armagnac, round and complex spirits
What is Haut-Armagnac?
Farthest east cru of Armagnac, lightest style
What grapes are most important in Armagnac production?
Ugni Blanc, Colombard, Folle Blanche, Baco Blanc
What still is used to make Armagnac?
Armagnac still (similar to continuous still)
What is blanche armagnac?
Armagnac aged for 3 months in inert containers
How long is VS Armagnac aged?
1 year minimum
How long is VSOP Armagnac aged?
4 year minimum
How long is Napoleon Armagnac aged?
6 year minimum
How long is XO Armagnac aged?
10 year minimum
How long is XO Premium Armagnac aged?
20 year minimum
How long is Hors d'Age Armagnac aged?
10 year minimum
How long is Vintage Armagnac aged?
10 year minimum
Where is Brandy de Jerez produced?
What are the 3 types of Brandy de Jerez?
Holandas, Aguardiente, Destilado
What are the aging terms for Brandy de Jerez?
Solera, Solera Reserva, Solera Gran Reserva
How long is Solera Brandy de Jerez aged?
6 months minimum
How long is Solera Reserva Brandy de Jerez aged?
1 year minimum
How long is Solera Gran Reserva Brandy de Jerez aged?
3 year minimum
What is Pisco Corriente (Tradicional)?
Chilean pisco bottled at 30% ABV minimum
What is Pisco Especial?
Chilean pisco bottled at 35% ABV minimum
What is Pisco Reservado?
Chilean pisco bottled at 40% ABV minimum
What is Gran Pisco?
Chilean pisco bottled at 43% ABV minimum
What is required ABV of peruvian pisco?
How is Peruvian pisco aged?
Not in wood, minimum of 3 months in inert containers
What is pisco puro?
Pisco made from single grape variety
What is pisco acholado?
Blended pisco, produced with more than one grape variety
What is pisco mosto verde?
Pisco produced from distillation of partially fermented grape must
What is pisco aromatico?
Pisco produced from only aromatic grapes
What are some French brandies?
Fine de Bordeaux, Fine de Bougogne, Fine de la Marne
What are the 3 types of South American brandy?
Pot still brandy, blended brandy, vintage brandy
What German brandy is labeled Alter Weinbrand?
Brandy aged a minimum of 6 months
What German brandy is labeled Uralt Weinbrand?
Brandy aged a minimum of 12 months
What is the most famous brand of brandy from Greece?
What is Grappa?
Italian pommace brandy produced by traditional steam distillation
What is Calvados?
French (Normandy) apple brandy
What are the 3 AOCs of Calvados?
Calvados AOC, Calvados Pays d'Auge AOC, Calvados Domfrontais AOC
What ABV must flavored brandy be bottled at?
At what ABV is rum required to be distilled according to US?
At what ABV is rum required to be bottled according to US?
At what ABV is rum required to be distilled according to EU?
At what ABV is rum required to be bottled according to US?
How long does cultured yeast take to convert sugar to alcohol?
How long does wild yeast take to convert sugar to alcohol
1 week - several weeks
What is dunder?
Traditional yeast source made from acidic, yeast-rich leftovers in still after distillation, typical in Jamaican rum
What are skimmings?
Sugar and mineral rich residue during boiling and concentration of sugarcane juice
What is common cleans rum?
Jamaican rum with lowest level of esters, light and floral aromas
What is plummers rum?
Jamaican rum with medium level of esters, tropical fruit aromas
What is Wedderburns?
Jamaican rum with medium-high esters
What is Continental Flavored rum?
Jamaican rum with high esters, aromatic and flavorful, medicinal aromas
Where is Rhum Agricole made?
West Indies, Martinique
What is Rhum Blanc Martinique?
Style of rhum agricole that is white, aged for at least 3 months
What is Rhum Martinique Eleve Sous Bois?
Style of rhum agricole that is aged in oak for 12 months
What is Rhum Martinique Vieux?
Style of rhum agricole aged for at least 3 years
What is Demerara Rum?
Rum produced by Demerara Distillery in Guyana
What is Barbados Rum?
Rum mainly made from molasses, rich flavorful styles
What is British style rum?
Dark, heavy, full-bodied rum
Where is Cuban style rum produced?
Puerto rico, Cuba, Central America
What is Cuban style rum?
Light, clean, floral, delicate rum
What is French style rum?
Rum produced from sugarcane with floral aromas and fruity notes
What is Tuzemak?
Czech spirit produced from potatoes or sugar beets with cinnamon, anise and caramel
What ABV is tequila required to be bottled at according to US?
What has to be converted to sugar to make tequila?
How long does fermenting agave take?
What are the 100% agave tequila styles?
Blanco, Reposado, Anejo, Extra Anejo
What are the mixto tequila styles?
Blanco, Joven Abocado, Reposado, Anejo, Extra Anejo, Flavored
How long does 100% agave blanco need to be aged?
How long does 100% agave reposado need to be aged?
How long does 100% agave anejo need to be aged?
How long does 100% agave extra anejo need to be aged?
How long does mixto reposado need to be aged?
How long does mixto anejo need to be aged?
How long does mixto extra anejo need to be aged?
Where is Mezcal typically made?
What is Raicilla?
"Moonshine" made with agave bottled at over 100 proof, made in Jalisco
How much sugar is required to be in a liqueur according to US?
How much sugar is required to be in a liqueur according to EU?
7% for cherry liqueur, 8% for gentian liqueur, 10% for everything else
What is flavor in creme de cassis?
What is flavor in Sambuca?
anise or star anise
What is flavor in advocaat?
Honey, egg, sugar
What is Chambord?
Black raspberry liqueur made in Loire Valley
What are examples of fruit liqueurs?
Chambord, Cointreau, Limoncello, Malibu
What are examples of Herbal liqueurs?
Creme Yvette, Gaillano, LIquore Strega, Goldschlager, Sambuca
What is Sambuca?
Italian liqueur flavored with anise
What are examples of bean, nut, and seed liqueurs?
Disaronno, Frangelico, Kahlua, Nocino, Tuaca, Tia Maria
What are the 4 main groups of aromatized wines?
Vermouth, Vini Amari/chinati, Quinquina, Americano
What is vermouth?
Aromatized wine flavored with wormwood
What is Vini Amari?
Aromatized, unfortified wines
What is Americano?
Aromatized wine using wormwood and/or gentian
What is required wine base for vermouth according to the EU?
What is ABV for vermouth according to the EU?
What is Chambery vermouth?
Located in the french alps, clean fresh and floral style
What is Noilly Prat?
Main producer of Marsailles style vermouth, known for lightly wooded, oxidative properties
Where is the Dolin house located?
What is torino style vermouth?
Dominant style of red vermouth, slightly more sweet with floral notes and spices
Who is called inventor of vermouth?
What is Perucchi?
Spanish style vermouth with characteristics of chamomile, ginger, lemon verbena, etc.
What is Yzaguirre?
Spanish vermouth with balsamic flavor
What is Primitivo quiles?
Spanish vermouth made in alpine style
What is Chinato?
Vini Amari made in Piedmont, Italy
What is Cardamaro?
Vini Amari made in Piedmont, Italy using moscato wine as base
What is Lillet?
Mild quinquina created in bordeaux
What are some styles of quinquina?
Lillet, Dubbonet, Byrrh, St. Raphael
What are some styles of Americano?
Cocchi Americano and Contratto Americano
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