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Paper 1: MTGW Japan Terminology (IBDP History)
A study set featuring major treaties, events, and significant people for Paper 1 Japan.(The Move to Global War)
Terms in this set (47)
Treaty of Kanagawa (Mar 1854)
Signed under threat of force, it effectively meant the end of Japan's 220-year-old policy of national isolation (sakoku) by opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American vessels.
Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1858)
It opened the ports of Kanagawa and four other Japanese cities to trade and granted extraterritoriality to foreigners, among a number of trading stipulations.
Boshin War & Meiji Restoration (Jan 1868-Jun 1869)
A civil war in Japan between the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Emperor. It resulted in an imperial victory (the young Emperor was renamed Meiji) and the end of the shogunate.
The Charter Oath (Apr 1868)
Made by the Emperor Meiji after the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and the restoration of direct participation in government by the imperial family. The Charter Oath opened the way for the modernization of the country and the introduction of a Western parliamentary constitution.
Creation of The Meiji Constitution (1868)
Japan's leaders sought to create a constitution that would define Japan as a capable, modern nation deserving of Western respect while preserving their own power.
First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
A conflict w/ China over supremacy in Korea. Japan was successful.
Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)
An alliance that bound Britain and Japan to assist one another in safeguarding their respective interests in China and Korea. Japan defeated Russia. Japan gained territory.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)
Japan surprise-attacked Russia as both countries had interests in Korea & Manchuria.
21 Demands (1915)
Japan imposed the 21 demands on China, a list of ultimatums.
Support of Whites in Bolshevik Revolution (1917)
The Japanese sent 70,000 men to support the Whites, attempting to end communists from securing power in Russia. They were ultimately defeated by the Bolsheviks and had to withdraw.
Shidehara Kijuro's Government (1918-21)
Influenced by Shidehara, Japan changed to a foreign policy of internationalism during the 1920s. Aimed to develop Japan's economy, good relations w/ US & economic advancement in China.
Japan in WW1 (1914-1918)
Japan joined the Triple Entente Powers (France, Britain & Russia), Germany lost war & had to pay reparations. Japan benefitted little from participation and was still seen as a lesser power' and racially inferior.
Treaty of Versailles (June 1919)
Peace treaty from mainly Wilson, Lloyd George & Clemenceau that placed blame primarily on Germany (War Guilt Clause). Japan failed to get the racial equality clause included in the subsequent League of Nations charter, raising tensions.
League of Nations (formed Jan 1920)
Based on Woodrow Wilson's 14 points The League of Nations was established - a global intergovernmental organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. The US did not join, rendering it weak and dominated by Britain and France.
Four-Power Pact (Jul 1921)
Replaced the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Italy, Britain, France & Germany agreed that smaller nations should have less power.
Four-Power Treaty (Dec 1921)
The US, Britain, France & Japan agreed to discuss disagreements, halt expansion in the Pacific, and respect each other's territories.
Nine-Power Treaty (Feb 1922)
Agreed upon by all of the attendees to the Washington Naval Conference: the United States, Belgium, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan to respect Chinese independence.
Five-Power Treaty (Feb 1922)
Agreed upon by the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan to a 'balanced' naval tonnage ratio. (and Japan had to return territorial control of Shandong province)
Locarno Pact (Dec 1925)
Germany, France, Belgium, UK, & Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe. It had three main aims: to secure borders of the nations of Europe after the First World War; ensure the permanent demilitarization of the Rhineland; begin the process to admit Germany into the League of Nations.
US Immigration Act (1924)
US discrimination against Japan by not allowing Japanese immigrants into the United States.
Ascension of New Emperor Hirohito (Dec 1926)
Emperor Taisho died and a new Japanese emperor, Hirohito is celebrated. He was a symbol of the revival of nationalism and a weakening of international relations/diplomacy between Japan and other powers.
Assassination of Zhang Zuolin (Jun 1928)
Japan had originally backed the warlord Zhang Zuolin, but when Zhang grew more powerful he was a threat to Chiang Kai Shek. If Chiang Kai Shek defeated him, Japan's interests in Manchuria would be threatened. Some of the Kwantung army (Japan's army in Manchuria) assassinated him.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (Aug 1928)
France, US, UK, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy, Japan, and others. promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts.
Prime Minister Tanaka Resigns (Jul 1929)
The emperor told Tanaka to discipline the Kwantung army as they went against the government's wishes by assassinating the warlord Zhang Zuolin. Tanaka could not. He was replaced by Hamaguchi Yuko as Prime Minister.
Prime Minister Hamaguchi Yuko Resigns (Apr 1931)
Hamaguchi attempted to offer reforms but the economic crisis forced him to step down. He was later shot. PM Wakatsuki succeeded him.
Manchurian Crisis / Mukden Incident (Sept 1931)
An explosion on the Manchurian railway gave Japan an excuse to move into Manchuria and take greater control. Manchuria was important economically for the Japanese.
Stimson Doctrine (Jan 1932)
The US declared it would not recognize agreements violating China's territorial integrity and economic freedom. Developed by U.S. Secretary of State Henry Stimson.
Establishment of Manchukuo (Mar 1932)
Manchuria was wholly under Japanese control. Called the new state "Manchukuo". Japanese bombings in Shanghai slowly turned the world against Japan. It was one cause of Japanese isolation.
Assassination Attempts on Japanese Prime Ministers (1932-36)
Two imperialist & expansionist groups, the Tosei-ha (moderates) and Koda-ha (radicals), were vying for power in Japan. Three major assassination plots took place. PM Inukai was shot and killed.
Admiral Saito's Government (1932-34)
Admiral Saito favoured the Koda-ha, but was against radical factions.
Japan Leaves The League of Nations (Mar 1933)
The condemnation of Japan from the West caused them to walk out of the League of Nations. Japan became increasingly isolated.
Franklin Roosevelt Inaugurated (Mar 1933)
Franklin Roosevelt continued to have a limited response to Japanese actions as Hoover did. He was focused on solving the US economic crisis and dealing with Hitler's policies.
Admiral Okada's Government (1934-36)
Koda-ha officer assassinated Tosei-ha leader. The Koda-ha faction became discredited after a failed coup to take power.
Hirota Koki's Government (1936-37)
Okada resigned after a coup, and Hirota took over. He was weak and made many concessions with the army.
Panay Incident (Dec 1937)
A US gunboat was bombed and sunk by the Japanese, increasing tensions between the nations.
Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45)
Conflict between Japan & China over Japanese invasion of China. This conflict was a part of WWII where China received support from USSR & USA. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937. A Second United Front was formed between Chinese forces to fight their common enemy of Japan. In 1941 the GMD turned on the CCP causing a deterioration of relations.
Rape of Nanjing (Dec 1937)
Nanjing fell to the Japanese. Chinese soldiers and civilians were subjected to atrocities from the Japanese.
General Hayashi's Government (Feb-Jun 1937)
The Diet was the only method left to limit military power, the government weak after Hirota's term. Politicians divided.
Prince Konoe's Government (Jun 1937-38)
Prince Konoe took over and it was hoped he could help control the army. Soon it became apparent that he could not.
New Order In Asia (Nov 1938)
The Japanese declared a new political, cultural & economic union between Japan, Manchukuo & China. Chiang Kai Shek rejected this order and continued fighting.
Tripartite Pact (Sept 1940)
A three-way agreement. Germany and Italy were to dominate Europe; Japan was to dominate East Asia.
Re-Emergence of Prince Konoe's Government (Jul 1940)
Konoe still aimed to limit the power of the military. He was unsuccessful.
Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact (April 1941)
The Soviet Union concentrated on Europe, and Japan moved forces further south in Asia. The two nations fought against each other's allies but not against each other. In 1945, late in the war, the Soviets scrapped the pact and joined the Allied campaign against Japan.
Roosevelt Issues Embargo on Japan (Jul 1941)
Roosevelt seized all Japanese assets in the United States in retaliation for the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China. He placed an embargo on steel and oil, on which Japan depended.
Tojo Hideki Becomes Prime Minister (Oct 1941)
Prince Konoe resigned and was replaced by Tojo. The military was now in total control of Japan.
Negotiations Between USA & Japan (1941)
Washington wanted Japan to respect the territorial integrity of its neighbours and maintain an "open door '' trade policy. Japan would not agree.
Pearl Harbor Attack (Dec 1941)
Japanese bombers attacked US ships at Pearl Harbor. Japan did not manage to damage the US aircraft carriers, thus rendering the attack a failure in the long term. The US was incredibly angered by the attack and prompted their declaration of war upon Japan.
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