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Paper 1: MTGW Germany Terminology (IBDP History)
A study set featuring major treaties, events, and significant people for Paper 1 Germany. (The Move to Global War)
Terms in this set (50)
Schlieffen Plan (Aug 1914)
Germany intended to achieve a swift victory over France after attacking Russia, but ended up being a much longer war. (created 1905, employed in a modified format in 1914, which ultimately failed)
Armistice of 11 November 1918 (Nov 1918)
The Kaiser abdicated and the new socialist government agreed to armistice. Armistice that ended the fighting on land, sea & air in WWI; German leaders later labelled the 'November Criminals'.
November Revolution (1918)
The population was angry at the outcome of WWI. Led to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. The declaration of a republic by Philip Scheidemann, an SPD (Social Democratic Party) leader, was followed two
days later by the signing of an armistice with the Allied powers.
Spartacist Revolt (Jan 1919)
A left-wing uprising designed to establish a communist state in Germany. Following this, the Weimar government was established to replace autocratic rule.
Treaty of Versailles (June 1919)
Peace treaty from mainly Wilson, Lloyd George & Clemenceau that placed blame primarily on Germany (War Guilt Clause). Japan failed to get the racial equality clause included. Italian Prime Minister Orlando resigns because of limited success at Versailles.
Emergence of Weimar Government (1919-1925)
Freiderich Ebert was the first President of Germany. The Weimar government had many challenges and was Germany's first attempt at liberal democracy. The Nazi's were opportunistic in exploiting these weaknesses.
League of Nations Formed (Jan 1920)
Based on Woodrow Wilson's 14 points The League of Nations was established - a global intergovernmental organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. The US did not join, rendering it weak and dominated by Britain and France.
Four-Power Pact (Jul 1921)
Replaced the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Italy, Britain, France & Germany agreed that smaller nations should have less power.
Hitler Becomes Leader of Nazi Party (Aug 1921)
Hitler hates the Treaty of Versailles & becomes involved in politics. He worked for the army to investigate German Workers party, but ended up joining. Party remained the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis). Hitler became leader & helped with the creation of the 25 point programme. This programme appealed to the masses.
Four-Power Treaty (Dec 1921)
The US, Britain, France & Japan agreed to discuss disagreements, halt expansion in the Pacific, and respect each other's territories.
Nine-Power Treaty (Feb 1922)
Agreed upon by all of the attendees to the Washington Naval Conference: the United States, Belgium, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan to respect Chinese independence.
Five-Power Treaty (Feb 1922)
Agreed upon by the United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan to a 'balanced' naval tonnage ratio. (and Japan had to return territorial control of Shandong province)
Ruhr Crisis (Jan 1923)
France & Belgium invaded the region when Germany defaulted on reparations payments, hoping to extract resources; the German government caused hyperinflation by encouraging passive resistance and printing money to pay striking workers.
Munich Beer Hall Putsch (Nov 1923)
Hitler tried to overthrow the government, being inspired by the March on Rome, but failed. However, he gained support & publicity. In prison he completed Mein Kampf.
Dawes Plan (Aug 1924)
Chancellor Stresemann organized loans to Germany from the US. Germany experienced a period of economic recovery.
Locarno Pact (Dec 1925)
Germany, France, Belgium, UK, & Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe. It had three main aims: to secure borders of the nations of Europe after the First World War; ensure the permanent demilitarization of the Rhineland; begin the process to admit Germany into the League of Nations.
Germany Joins the League of Nations (1926)
Stresemann wanted to cooperate with Britain & France so he joined the League of Nations. Some Germans were critical and some French were opposed, whereas the British largely saw it as important to bring Germany back into the international fold.
Kellogg-Briand Pact (Aug 1928)
France, US, UK, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy, Japan, etc. promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts.
Young Plan (Dec 1929)
Chancellor Stresemann organized further loans to Germany from the US to help deal with economic distress. The Great Depression led to the recalling of all loans, pushing Germany into greater economic trouble.
Great Depression (1929-39)
The Wall Street Crash caused an economic crisis worldwide. It affected many countries negatively and caused tensions.
Geneva Disarmament Conference (Feb 1932)
France, Britain & Germany disarmament conference, Germany ultimately pulled out because other nations refused to reduce their militaries to Germany's levels. Hitler also pulls out of the League of Nations. Hitler felt emboldened to rearm.
Hitler Appointed Chancellor (Jan 1933)
President Von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor after getting over 30% of the vote. He believed he could contain Hitler and Nazi radicalism this way but was wrong.
Reichstag Fire (Feb 1933)
Nazis took advantage of the burning of the Reichstag building and claimed it was a communist plot. This led to Hitler to gain more powers of government.
March 1933 Election (Mar 1933)
Nazis don't win majority but form a coalition, many Germans vote for opposing parties of the Weimar Government.
Enabling Act (Mar 1933)
Hitler was able to pass laws without consent from Reichstag = censorship & reforms. Communists couldn't vote, Hitler intimidated others with SA, businessmen as well as politicians wanted Hitler's help for public support.
Night of the Long Knives (Jun 1934)
Hitler assassinated opponents & disloyal SA members. A primary target was Ernst Rohm, seen as a threat to Hitler due to his insistence that the army and SA be merged.
Non-Aggression Pact with Poland (Aug 1934)
Poland was concerned with the League and Germany. Hitler agreed to non-aggression w/ Poland for a 10 year period. It temporarily secured Hitler's Eastern border. Other nations were encouraged by this action to work with Hitler.
Hindenburg Dies (1934)
After Hindenburg died, the Nazis took full control of Germany and converted themselves into dictatorship. Hitler appointed himself the Fuhrer of Germany.
Saar Plebiscite (Jan 1935)
The Saar Plebiscite was a vote for the French in Saar region to choose whether to be a part of Germany or France.
Beginning of Appeasement (1930s)
British PM Neville Chamberlain incited a policy which conceded to Germany in order to avoid conflict. Appeasement was a good policy for Britain because of public opinion, dictators demands seen as justified, lack of alternative, economic pressures, global commitments, defence priorities, Chamberlain felt he could maintain peace.
Stresa Conference (Apr 1935)
Italy, France & Britain wanted to prevent Germany from rearming and agreed to mutually support each other to check German power.
Anglo-German Naval Agreement (Jun 1935)
Britain broke the Stresa Agreement and allowed Germany to have a Navy. When Britain broke the Stresa Agreement Italy felt all agreements were null. France was offended.
Spanish Civil War (1936-39)
Mussolini saw an opportunity to expand & show military strength so he supported Spanish fascist against communists. German forces supported the victory of Spanish fascists.
Remilitarization of Rhineland (Mar 1936)
Hitler seized the opportunity to send troops to remilitarize Rhineland. This violated the Treaty of Versailles & Locarno. He justified his actions following the Franco-Soviet Mutual Assistance Treaty threatened Germany with being encircled. Hitler faced no opposition from the West.
Austro-German Agreement (1936)
Germany reaffirmed Austrian independence. Neither nation would interfere with another's foreign affairs.
Rome-Berlin Axis (Oct 1936)
Alliance of Fascist Italy & Germany. They became closer. Both countries had similar fascist views.
Anti-Comintern Pact (Nov 1937)
Hitler, Mussolini & Hirota sign a pact against Communism. They also agreed to a mutual defence should the USSR attack.
Hossbach Memorandum (Nov 1937)
Meeting notes between Hitler & generals, expansionist policy & combat Western Powers as they are gaining military power (Germany needs to be on equal footing with them). Hitler fired generals who opposed him.
Anschluss (Mar 1938)
Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg meets w/ Hitler, plebiscite shows large support & Schuschnigg agrees to Hitler's demands. He resigns & the Nazis take control. This violated the Treaty of Versailles. However, the response was limited.
May Crisis (May 1938)
Rumours that Germans were mobilizing along Czech border - Britain and France were warned. Claims were unfounded and a humiliation to Hitler.
Munich Agreement / Crisis (Sept 1938)
Agreement which permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain failed at peace, so Mussolini stepped in. Highlighted weakness of Britain and France.
German Occupation of the Sudetenland (Oct 1938)
Germans could join, Czechs could leave. 4 Powers would guarantee independence of Czechoslovakia. Hitler called for the liquidation of Czechoslovakia. France & Britain wanted to avoid conflict, so they let this happen.
Invasion of Czechoslovakia (Mar 1939)
Hitler breaks the Munich Agreement by invading the rest of Czechoslovakia. This was essentially the end of appeasement. Chamberlain was forced to take a firmer stance.
Pact of Steel (May 1939)
Germany & Italy agreed to cooperate, union of policies.
Nazi-Soviet Pact (Aug 1939)
Soviet Union & Germany agreed to neutrality. Mussolini did not feel ready for war, but Hitler did not want to wait.
Anglo-Polish Agreement (Aug 1939)
Agreement of mutual assistance in case of military invasion from Germany.
Invasion of Poland (Sept 1939)
Italy suggested they weren't ready for war. They remained non-aggressive. German troops invaded Poland & Luftwaffe (German air force) bombed the capital at Warsaw.
End of Appeasement (1939)
Hitler's violation of treaties and expansionism marked the end of appeasement and the beginning of the war. Britain & France offer no help to Poland. Alliance of Britain & France with USSR.
Invasion of Egypt & Greece (1940)
Mussolini invaded Egypt and Greece. Britain pushed Italy out of Egypt. Britain had to evacuate Greece when Germany helped Italy.
Tripartite Pact (Sept 1940)
Germany & Italy to dominate Europe, Japan to dominate East Asia.
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